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Two FLX family members are non-redundantly required to establish the vernalization requirement in Arabidopsis.

Lee J, Amasino RM - Nat Commun (2013)

Bottom Line: In this study, we show that FLOWERING LOCUS C EXPRESSOR-LIKE 4 (FLL4) is essential for upregulation of FLC in winter-annual Arabidopsis accessions and establishment of a vernalization requirement.Epistasis analysis among FRIGIDA, FLL4, FLOWERING LOCUS C EXPRESSOR and autonomous-pathway genes reveals that FRIGIDA fve exhibits an extreme delay of flowering compared with fri fve, but mutants in other autonomous-pathway genes do not, indicating that FVE acts most antagonistically to FRIGIDA.FLL4 may represent a new member of a FRI-containing complex that activates FLC.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 433 Babcock Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA.

ABSTRACT
Studies of natural genetic variation for the vernalization requirement in Arabidopsis have revealed two genes, FRIGIDA and FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), that are determinants of the vernalization-requiring, winter-annual habit. In this study, we show that FLOWERING LOCUS C EXPRESSOR-LIKE 4 (FLL4) is essential for upregulation of FLC in winter-annual Arabidopsis accessions and establishment of a vernalization requirement. FLL4 is part of the FLOWERING LOCUS C EXPRESSOR gene family and both are non-redundantly involved in flowering time control. Epistasis analysis among FRIGIDA, FLL4, FLOWERING LOCUS C EXPRESSOR and autonomous-pathway genes reveals that FRIGIDA fve exhibits an extreme delay of flowering compared with fri fve, but mutants in other autonomous-pathway genes do not, indicating that FVE acts most antagonistically to FRIGIDA. FLL4 may represent a new member of a FRI-containing complex that activates FLC.

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Effect of loss of various FRI complex components in the fve background(a) Flowering was evaluated in various mutant combinations of fri, fll4, flx and fve in long days without vernalization. (b) Transcript levels of FLC in the genotypes studied from (a). (c) The flowering phenotype of FRI in various FRI complex component mutant backgrounds. All flowering time data are presented as mean values of 12 individual plants, and all of the expression data are presented as mean values of three biological replicates. Error bars indicate standard deviation.
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Figure 7: Effect of loss of various FRI complex components in the fve background(a) Flowering was evaluated in various mutant combinations of fri, fll4, flx and fve in long days without vernalization. (b) Transcript levels of FLC in the genotypes studied from (a). (c) The flowering phenotype of FRI in various FRI complex component mutant backgrounds. All flowering time data are presented as mean values of 12 individual plants, and all of the expression data are presented as mean values of three biological replicates. Error bars indicate standard deviation.

Mentions: In a FRI background, loss of one of many putative FRI components is sufficient to reduce FLC expression to levels as low as those in rapid-cycling wild types that lack FRI32, 39, 41. As discussed above, however, loss of FVE provides a “sensitized” background in which FRI causes a stronger delay in flowering. To further explore the roles of FLL4 and FLX in this sensitized background, we made double, triple and quadruple mutants among fri, fve, fll4 and flx. First, we compared the flowering behavior of fve fll4, fve flx and fve fll4 flx with or without FRI. The flowering of FRI fve fll4 and FRI fve flx was delayed compared to fri fve fll4 and fri fve flx (Fig. 7a). Thus, in the sensitized fve background, FRI causes a modest delay of flowering, in the absence of FLL4or FLX. We also investigated the effect of these genetic combinations on FLC expression. The flowering behaviors were clearly correlated with FLC expression (Fig. 7b). These data indicate that the ability of FRI to delay flowering in the absence of FLL4 or FLX is mediated via FLC expression.


Two FLX family members are non-redundantly required to establish the vernalization requirement in Arabidopsis.

Lee J, Amasino RM - Nat Commun (2013)

Effect of loss of various FRI complex components in the fve background(a) Flowering was evaluated in various mutant combinations of fri, fll4, flx and fve in long days without vernalization. (b) Transcript levels of FLC in the genotypes studied from (a). (c) The flowering phenotype of FRI in various FRI complex component mutant backgrounds. All flowering time data are presented as mean values of 12 individual plants, and all of the expression data are presented as mean values of three biological replicates. Error bars indicate standard deviation.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3753012&req=5

Figure 7: Effect of loss of various FRI complex components in the fve background(a) Flowering was evaluated in various mutant combinations of fri, fll4, flx and fve in long days without vernalization. (b) Transcript levels of FLC in the genotypes studied from (a). (c) The flowering phenotype of FRI in various FRI complex component mutant backgrounds. All flowering time data are presented as mean values of 12 individual plants, and all of the expression data are presented as mean values of three biological replicates. Error bars indicate standard deviation.
Mentions: In a FRI background, loss of one of many putative FRI components is sufficient to reduce FLC expression to levels as low as those in rapid-cycling wild types that lack FRI32, 39, 41. As discussed above, however, loss of FVE provides a “sensitized” background in which FRI causes a stronger delay in flowering. To further explore the roles of FLL4 and FLX in this sensitized background, we made double, triple and quadruple mutants among fri, fve, fll4 and flx. First, we compared the flowering behavior of fve fll4, fve flx and fve fll4 flx with or without FRI. The flowering of FRI fve fll4 and FRI fve flx was delayed compared to fri fve fll4 and fri fve flx (Fig. 7a). Thus, in the sensitized fve background, FRI causes a modest delay of flowering, in the absence of FLL4or FLX. We also investigated the effect of these genetic combinations on FLC expression. The flowering behaviors were clearly correlated with FLC expression (Fig. 7b). These data indicate that the ability of FRI to delay flowering in the absence of FLL4 or FLX is mediated via FLC expression.

Bottom Line: In this study, we show that FLOWERING LOCUS C EXPRESSOR-LIKE 4 (FLL4) is essential for upregulation of FLC in winter-annual Arabidopsis accessions and establishment of a vernalization requirement.Epistasis analysis among FRIGIDA, FLL4, FLOWERING LOCUS C EXPRESSOR and autonomous-pathway genes reveals that FRIGIDA fve exhibits an extreme delay of flowering compared with fri fve, but mutants in other autonomous-pathway genes do not, indicating that FVE acts most antagonistically to FRIGIDA.FLL4 may represent a new member of a FRI-containing complex that activates FLC.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 433 Babcock Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA.

ABSTRACT
Studies of natural genetic variation for the vernalization requirement in Arabidopsis have revealed two genes, FRIGIDA and FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), that are determinants of the vernalization-requiring, winter-annual habit. In this study, we show that FLOWERING LOCUS C EXPRESSOR-LIKE 4 (FLL4) is essential for upregulation of FLC in winter-annual Arabidopsis accessions and establishment of a vernalization requirement. FLL4 is part of the FLOWERING LOCUS C EXPRESSOR gene family and both are non-redundantly involved in flowering time control. Epistasis analysis among FRIGIDA, FLL4, FLOWERING LOCUS C EXPRESSOR and autonomous-pathway genes reveals that FRIGIDA fve exhibits an extreme delay of flowering compared with fri fve, but mutants in other autonomous-pathway genes do not, indicating that FVE acts most antagonistically to FRIGIDA. FLL4 may represent a new member of a FRI-containing complex that activates FLC.

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