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Two FLX family members are non-redundantly required to establish the vernalization requirement in Arabidopsis.

Lee J, Amasino RM - Nat Commun (2013)

Bottom Line: In this study, we show that FLOWERING LOCUS C EXPRESSOR-LIKE 4 (FLL4) is essential for upregulation of FLC in winter-annual Arabidopsis accessions and establishment of a vernalization requirement.Epistasis analysis among FRIGIDA, FLL4, FLOWERING LOCUS C EXPRESSOR and autonomous-pathway genes reveals that FRIGIDA fve exhibits an extreme delay of flowering compared with fri fve, but mutants in other autonomous-pathway genes do not, indicating that FVE acts most antagonistically to FRIGIDA.FLL4 may represent a new member of a FRI-containing complex that activates FLC.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 433 Babcock Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA.

ABSTRACT
Studies of natural genetic variation for the vernalization requirement in Arabidopsis have revealed two genes, FRIGIDA and FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), that are determinants of the vernalization-requiring, winter-annual habit. In this study, we show that FLOWERING LOCUS C EXPRESSOR-LIKE 4 (FLL4) is essential for upregulation of FLC in winter-annual Arabidopsis accessions and establishment of a vernalization requirement. FLL4 is part of the FLOWERING LOCUS C EXPRESSOR gene family and both are non-redundantly involved in flowering time control. Epistasis analysis among FRIGIDA, FLL4, FLOWERING LOCUS C EXPRESSOR and autonomous-pathway genes reveals that FRIGIDA fve exhibits an extreme delay of flowering compared with fri fve, but mutants in other autonomous-pathway genes do not, indicating that FVE acts most antagonistically to FRIGIDA. FLL4 may represent a new member of a FRI-containing complex that activates FLC.

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VIN3 is not required for the rapid flowering of fll4 and flxThe requirement for VIN3 was evaluated by determining the flowering phenotype of fll4 and flx with and without VIN3 in long days (a, b) and short days (c). All of the flowering time data are presented as mean values of 12 individual plants. Error bars indicate standard deviation.
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Figure 3: VIN3 is not required for the rapid flowering of fll4 and flxThe requirement for VIN3 was evaluated by determining the flowering phenotype of fll4 and flx with and without VIN3 in long days (a, b) and short days (c). All of the flowering time data are presented as mean values of 12 individual plants. Error bars indicate standard deviation.

Mentions: As discussed above, the fll4 and flx suppressors were chosen for further study because they exhibited both increased VIN3 expression, reduced FLC expression, and rapid flowering in the absence of cold exposure. To determine whether the FLC suppression and rapid flowering of fll4 and flx is dependent on cold-independent VIN3 expression, we generated FRI fll4 vin3, FRI flx vin3, and FRI fll4 flx vin3 and measured flowering time in these lines (Fig. 3). There is no difference in the level of suppression of FRI FLC–mediated delayed flowering when VIN3 is present or absent in long days (Fig. 3a, b) or short days (Fig. 3c); thus, fll4 and flx suppression of FRI FLC-delayed flowering does not require VIN3.


Two FLX family members are non-redundantly required to establish the vernalization requirement in Arabidopsis.

Lee J, Amasino RM - Nat Commun (2013)

VIN3 is not required for the rapid flowering of fll4 and flxThe requirement for VIN3 was evaluated by determining the flowering phenotype of fll4 and flx with and without VIN3 in long days (a, b) and short days (c). All of the flowering time data are presented as mean values of 12 individual plants. Error bars indicate standard deviation.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3753012&req=5

Figure 3: VIN3 is not required for the rapid flowering of fll4 and flxThe requirement for VIN3 was evaluated by determining the flowering phenotype of fll4 and flx with and without VIN3 in long days (a, b) and short days (c). All of the flowering time data are presented as mean values of 12 individual plants. Error bars indicate standard deviation.
Mentions: As discussed above, the fll4 and flx suppressors were chosen for further study because they exhibited both increased VIN3 expression, reduced FLC expression, and rapid flowering in the absence of cold exposure. To determine whether the FLC suppression and rapid flowering of fll4 and flx is dependent on cold-independent VIN3 expression, we generated FRI fll4 vin3, FRI flx vin3, and FRI fll4 flx vin3 and measured flowering time in these lines (Fig. 3). There is no difference in the level of suppression of FRI FLC–mediated delayed flowering when VIN3 is present or absent in long days (Fig. 3a, b) or short days (Fig. 3c); thus, fll4 and flx suppression of FRI FLC-delayed flowering does not require VIN3.

Bottom Line: In this study, we show that FLOWERING LOCUS C EXPRESSOR-LIKE 4 (FLL4) is essential for upregulation of FLC in winter-annual Arabidopsis accessions and establishment of a vernalization requirement.Epistasis analysis among FRIGIDA, FLL4, FLOWERING LOCUS C EXPRESSOR and autonomous-pathway genes reveals that FRIGIDA fve exhibits an extreme delay of flowering compared with fri fve, but mutants in other autonomous-pathway genes do not, indicating that FVE acts most antagonistically to FRIGIDA.FLL4 may represent a new member of a FRI-containing complex that activates FLC.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 433 Babcock Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA.

ABSTRACT
Studies of natural genetic variation for the vernalization requirement in Arabidopsis have revealed two genes, FRIGIDA and FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), that are determinants of the vernalization-requiring, winter-annual habit. In this study, we show that FLOWERING LOCUS C EXPRESSOR-LIKE 4 (FLL4) is essential for upregulation of FLC in winter-annual Arabidopsis accessions and establishment of a vernalization requirement. FLL4 is part of the FLOWERING LOCUS C EXPRESSOR gene family and both are non-redundantly involved in flowering time control. Epistasis analysis among FRIGIDA, FLL4, FLOWERING LOCUS C EXPRESSOR and autonomous-pathway genes reveals that FRIGIDA fve exhibits an extreme delay of flowering compared with fri fve, but mutants in other autonomous-pathway genes do not, indicating that FVE acts most antagonistically to FRIGIDA. FLL4 may represent a new member of a FRI-containing complex that activates FLC.

Show MeSH