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Characterization and identification of PARM-1 as a new potential oncogene.

Charfi C, Levros LC, Edouard E, Rassart E - Mol. Cancer (2013)

Bottom Line: Moreover, deletion mutants of human PARM-1 without either extracellular or cytoplasmic portions seem to retain the ability to induce anchorage-independent growth of NIH/3T3 cells.In addition, PARM-1 increases ERK1/2, but more importantly AKT and STAT3 phosphorylation.Our results strongly suggest the oncogenic potential of PARM-1.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratoire de Biologie Moléculaire, Département des Sciences Biologiques, Centre BioMed, Université du Québec à Montréal, Case Postale 8888, Succursale Centre-ville, Montréal, QC H3C-3P8, Canada.

ABSTRACT

Background: The Graffi murine retrovirus is a powerful tool to find leukemia associated oncogenes. Using DNA microarrays, we recently identified several genes specifically deregulated in T- and B-leukemias induced by this virus.

Results: In the present study, probsets associated with T-CD8+ leukemias were analyzed and we validated the expression profile of the Parm-1 gene. PARM-1 is a member of the mucin family. We showed that human PARM-1 is an intact secreted protein accumulating predominantly, such as murine PARM-1, at the Golgi and in the early and late endosomes. PARM-1 colocalization with α-tubulin suggests that its trafficking within the cell involves the microtubule cytoskeleton. Also, the protein co-localizes with caveolin-1 which probably mediates its internalization. Transient transfection of both mouse and human Parm-1 cDNAs conferred anchorage- and serum-independent growth and enhanced cell proliferation. Moreover, deletion mutants of human PARM-1 without either extracellular or cytoplasmic portions seem to retain the ability to induce anchorage-independent growth of NIH/3T3 cells. In addition, PARM-1 increases ERK1/2, but more importantly AKT and STAT3 phosphorylation.

Conclusions: Our results strongly suggest the oncogenic potential of PARM-1.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Subcellular localization of mPARM-1 and hPARM-1 (full-length and mutant proteins). (a) NIH/3T3 cells, transiently transfected with GFP-tagged mParm-1 or hParm-1 constructs were visualized using confocal microscopy. (b) For the Golgi co-localization, transfected NIH/3T3 cells were fixed and stained with Bodipy ceramide marker. For late and early endosomes co-localization, fixed cells were labeled with (c) anti-Rab5 (early endosomes (1:100, Cell signaling)) and (d) anti-Rab7 (late endosomes (1:100, Cell signaling)) antibodies, respectively. Jurkat T cells, transiently transfected with hParm-1-GFP proteins were visualized (e) without fixation or (f) following fixation and staining with CellMask plasma membrane labeling. NIH/3T3 cells were transiently transfected with (g) ∆EC-GFP, (h) ∆SP-GFP, (i) EC-GFP, (j) ∆TM-GFP and (k) ∆CT-GFP constructs of hPARM-1 and visualized using confocal microscopy. (l) hPARM-1-GFP co-localizes with microtubules. NIH/3T3 cells transfected with hParm-1-GFP construct were fixed and stained with anti-α-tubulin (1/2000, Sigma) antibody. Arrows indicate co-localized hPARM-1-GFP vesicles and microtubules. NIH/3T3 cells transiently expressing (m) hPARM-1-GFP or (n) ∆CT-GFP were fixed, immunostained for caveolin-1 (1:100, Novus Biologicals), and examined by confocal fluorescence microscopy. For hPARM-1-GFP-caveolin-1 co-localization, cells that clearly demonstrated cell membrane PARM-1 localization were chosen. All co-localizations were observed following merging images of GFP-tagged proteins with those of Golgi, endosomes, plasma membrane, α-tubulin or caveolin-1 labeling. Cells were imaged with a laser-scanning confocal microscope (Bio-Rad MRC-1024 ES) mounted on a Nikon TE-300 using a Plan Apochromat 60x (NA 1.40) oil objective (Nikon), digitally acquired using Laser Sharp software Version 3.2 (Bio-Rad). For live cell imaging, signals were collected at a rate of 2 seconds. Images were analyzed using NIH ImageJ Version 1.42l software. Data are representative of 3 independent experiments.
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Figure 4: Subcellular localization of mPARM-1 and hPARM-1 (full-length and mutant proteins). (a) NIH/3T3 cells, transiently transfected with GFP-tagged mParm-1 or hParm-1 constructs were visualized using confocal microscopy. (b) For the Golgi co-localization, transfected NIH/3T3 cells were fixed and stained with Bodipy ceramide marker. For late and early endosomes co-localization, fixed cells were labeled with (c) anti-Rab5 (early endosomes (1:100, Cell signaling)) and (d) anti-Rab7 (late endosomes (1:100, Cell signaling)) antibodies, respectively. Jurkat T cells, transiently transfected with hParm-1-GFP proteins were visualized (e) without fixation or (f) following fixation and staining with CellMask plasma membrane labeling. NIH/3T3 cells were transiently transfected with (g) ∆EC-GFP, (h) ∆SP-GFP, (i) EC-GFP, (j) ∆TM-GFP and (k) ∆CT-GFP constructs of hPARM-1 and visualized using confocal microscopy. (l) hPARM-1-GFP co-localizes with microtubules. NIH/3T3 cells transfected with hParm-1-GFP construct were fixed and stained with anti-α-tubulin (1/2000, Sigma) antibody. Arrows indicate co-localized hPARM-1-GFP vesicles and microtubules. NIH/3T3 cells transiently expressing (m) hPARM-1-GFP or (n) ∆CT-GFP were fixed, immunostained for caveolin-1 (1:100, Novus Biologicals), and examined by confocal fluorescence microscopy. For hPARM-1-GFP-caveolin-1 co-localization, cells that clearly demonstrated cell membrane PARM-1 localization were chosen. All co-localizations were observed following merging images of GFP-tagged proteins with those of Golgi, endosomes, plasma membrane, α-tubulin or caveolin-1 labeling. Cells were imaged with a laser-scanning confocal microscope (Bio-Rad MRC-1024 ES) mounted on a Nikon TE-300 using a Plan Apochromat 60x (NA 1.40) oil objective (Nikon), digitally acquired using Laser Sharp software Version 3.2 (Bio-Rad). For live cell imaging, signals were collected at a rate of 2 seconds. Images were analyzed using NIH ImageJ Version 1.42l software. Data are representative of 3 independent experiments.

Mentions: We were interested to confirm that hPARM-1 protein is localized to the Golgi, at the early endocytic pathway and at the plasma membrane [17] and investigated the localization of the murine protein in NIH/3T3 cells. Both mPARM-1-GFP or hPARM-1-GFP proteins were localized at the Golgi and have punctate and typical endosomal localization (Figure 4a). Similar results were obtained using a Myc-tagged protein and upon transfection with much less plasmid (data not shown), indicating that neither the GFP tag, nor the over-expression of PARM-1 disturbed its localization. The Golgi colocalization was confirmed following cell staining with the bodipy Golgi marker (Figure 4b). To quantify this colocalization, the Pearson’s correlation coefficient (Rr) was calculated using the ImageJ software. The values are ranged from 1 (perfect correlation) to −1 (perfect exclusion), zero corresponding to random localization. The Rr values are 0.68 for hPARM-1-GFP and 0.74 for mPARM-1-GFP confirming the colocalization of both human and murine PARM-1 with the golgi marker. The endosomal colocalization was also confirmed following immunolabelling of cells with anti-Rab5 (hPARM-1-GFP (Rr: 0.83); mPARM-1-GFP (Rr: 0.54)) and anti-Rab7 (hPARM-1-GFP (Rr: 0.86); mPARM-1-GFP (Rr: 0.88)) antibodies (Figure 4c and 4d). Surprisingly, localization at the plasma membrane was very weak for both proteins in NIH/3T3 (Figure 4a-d) and Jurkat T-cells (Rr: 0.2) transiently transfected with hParm-1-GFP (Figure 4e) and following cell membrane marker staining (Figure 4f) demonstrating that mPARM-1 has the same localization as its human homolog.


Characterization and identification of PARM-1 as a new potential oncogene.

Charfi C, Levros LC, Edouard E, Rassart E - Mol. Cancer (2013)

Subcellular localization of mPARM-1 and hPARM-1 (full-length and mutant proteins). (a) NIH/3T3 cells, transiently transfected with GFP-tagged mParm-1 or hParm-1 constructs were visualized using confocal microscopy. (b) For the Golgi co-localization, transfected NIH/3T3 cells were fixed and stained with Bodipy ceramide marker. For late and early endosomes co-localization, fixed cells were labeled with (c) anti-Rab5 (early endosomes (1:100, Cell signaling)) and (d) anti-Rab7 (late endosomes (1:100, Cell signaling)) antibodies, respectively. Jurkat T cells, transiently transfected with hParm-1-GFP proteins were visualized (e) without fixation or (f) following fixation and staining with CellMask plasma membrane labeling. NIH/3T3 cells were transiently transfected with (g) ∆EC-GFP, (h) ∆SP-GFP, (i) EC-GFP, (j) ∆TM-GFP and (k) ∆CT-GFP constructs of hPARM-1 and visualized using confocal microscopy. (l) hPARM-1-GFP co-localizes with microtubules. NIH/3T3 cells transfected with hParm-1-GFP construct were fixed and stained with anti-α-tubulin (1/2000, Sigma) antibody. Arrows indicate co-localized hPARM-1-GFP vesicles and microtubules. NIH/3T3 cells transiently expressing (m) hPARM-1-GFP or (n) ∆CT-GFP were fixed, immunostained for caveolin-1 (1:100, Novus Biologicals), and examined by confocal fluorescence microscopy. For hPARM-1-GFP-caveolin-1 co-localization, cells that clearly demonstrated cell membrane PARM-1 localization were chosen. All co-localizations were observed following merging images of GFP-tagged proteins with those of Golgi, endosomes, plasma membrane, α-tubulin or caveolin-1 labeling. Cells were imaged with a laser-scanning confocal microscope (Bio-Rad MRC-1024 ES) mounted on a Nikon TE-300 using a Plan Apochromat 60x (NA 1.40) oil objective (Nikon), digitally acquired using Laser Sharp software Version 3.2 (Bio-Rad). For live cell imaging, signals were collected at a rate of 2 seconds. Images were analyzed using NIH ImageJ Version 1.42l software. Data are representative of 3 independent experiments.
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Figure 4: Subcellular localization of mPARM-1 and hPARM-1 (full-length and mutant proteins). (a) NIH/3T3 cells, transiently transfected with GFP-tagged mParm-1 or hParm-1 constructs were visualized using confocal microscopy. (b) For the Golgi co-localization, transfected NIH/3T3 cells were fixed and stained with Bodipy ceramide marker. For late and early endosomes co-localization, fixed cells were labeled with (c) anti-Rab5 (early endosomes (1:100, Cell signaling)) and (d) anti-Rab7 (late endosomes (1:100, Cell signaling)) antibodies, respectively. Jurkat T cells, transiently transfected with hParm-1-GFP proteins were visualized (e) without fixation or (f) following fixation and staining with CellMask plasma membrane labeling. NIH/3T3 cells were transiently transfected with (g) ∆EC-GFP, (h) ∆SP-GFP, (i) EC-GFP, (j) ∆TM-GFP and (k) ∆CT-GFP constructs of hPARM-1 and visualized using confocal microscopy. (l) hPARM-1-GFP co-localizes with microtubules. NIH/3T3 cells transfected with hParm-1-GFP construct were fixed and stained with anti-α-tubulin (1/2000, Sigma) antibody. Arrows indicate co-localized hPARM-1-GFP vesicles and microtubules. NIH/3T3 cells transiently expressing (m) hPARM-1-GFP or (n) ∆CT-GFP were fixed, immunostained for caveolin-1 (1:100, Novus Biologicals), and examined by confocal fluorescence microscopy. For hPARM-1-GFP-caveolin-1 co-localization, cells that clearly demonstrated cell membrane PARM-1 localization were chosen. All co-localizations were observed following merging images of GFP-tagged proteins with those of Golgi, endosomes, plasma membrane, α-tubulin or caveolin-1 labeling. Cells were imaged with a laser-scanning confocal microscope (Bio-Rad MRC-1024 ES) mounted on a Nikon TE-300 using a Plan Apochromat 60x (NA 1.40) oil objective (Nikon), digitally acquired using Laser Sharp software Version 3.2 (Bio-Rad). For live cell imaging, signals were collected at a rate of 2 seconds. Images were analyzed using NIH ImageJ Version 1.42l software. Data are representative of 3 independent experiments.
Mentions: We were interested to confirm that hPARM-1 protein is localized to the Golgi, at the early endocytic pathway and at the plasma membrane [17] and investigated the localization of the murine protein in NIH/3T3 cells. Both mPARM-1-GFP or hPARM-1-GFP proteins were localized at the Golgi and have punctate and typical endosomal localization (Figure 4a). Similar results were obtained using a Myc-tagged protein and upon transfection with much less plasmid (data not shown), indicating that neither the GFP tag, nor the over-expression of PARM-1 disturbed its localization. The Golgi colocalization was confirmed following cell staining with the bodipy Golgi marker (Figure 4b). To quantify this colocalization, the Pearson’s correlation coefficient (Rr) was calculated using the ImageJ software. The values are ranged from 1 (perfect correlation) to −1 (perfect exclusion), zero corresponding to random localization. The Rr values are 0.68 for hPARM-1-GFP and 0.74 for mPARM-1-GFP confirming the colocalization of both human and murine PARM-1 with the golgi marker. The endosomal colocalization was also confirmed following immunolabelling of cells with anti-Rab5 (hPARM-1-GFP (Rr: 0.83); mPARM-1-GFP (Rr: 0.54)) and anti-Rab7 (hPARM-1-GFP (Rr: 0.86); mPARM-1-GFP (Rr: 0.88)) antibodies (Figure 4c and 4d). Surprisingly, localization at the plasma membrane was very weak for both proteins in NIH/3T3 (Figure 4a-d) and Jurkat T-cells (Rr: 0.2) transiently transfected with hParm-1-GFP (Figure 4e) and following cell membrane marker staining (Figure 4f) demonstrating that mPARM-1 has the same localization as its human homolog.

Bottom Line: Moreover, deletion mutants of human PARM-1 without either extracellular or cytoplasmic portions seem to retain the ability to induce anchorage-independent growth of NIH/3T3 cells.In addition, PARM-1 increases ERK1/2, but more importantly AKT and STAT3 phosphorylation.Our results strongly suggest the oncogenic potential of PARM-1.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratoire de Biologie Moléculaire, Département des Sciences Biologiques, Centre BioMed, Université du Québec à Montréal, Case Postale 8888, Succursale Centre-ville, Montréal, QC H3C-3P8, Canada.

ABSTRACT

Background: The Graffi murine retrovirus is a powerful tool to find leukemia associated oncogenes. Using DNA microarrays, we recently identified several genes specifically deregulated in T- and B-leukemias induced by this virus.

Results: In the present study, probsets associated with T-CD8+ leukemias were analyzed and we validated the expression profile of the Parm-1 gene. PARM-1 is a member of the mucin family. We showed that human PARM-1 is an intact secreted protein accumulating predominantly, such as murine PARM-1, at the Golgi and in the early and late endosomes. PARM-1 colocalization with α-tubulin suggests that its trafficking within the cell involves the microtubule cytoskeleton. Also, the protein co-localizes with caveolin-1 which probably mediates its internalization. Transient transfection of both mouse and human Parm-1 cDNAs conferred anchorage- and serum-independent growth and enhanced cell proliferation. Moreover, deletion mutants of human PARM-1 without either extracellular or cytoplasmic portions seem to retain the ability to induce anchorage-independent growth of NIH/3T3 cells. In addition, PARM-1 increases ERK1/2, but more importantly AKT and STAT3 phosphorylation.

Conclusions: Our results strongly suggest the oncogenic potential of PARM-1.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus