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Levosimendan limits reperfusion injury in a rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model.

Hein M, Zoremba N, Bleilevens C, Bruells C, Rossaint R, Roehl AB - BMC Neurol (2013)

Bottom Line: Although levosimendan limited the infarct size and brain swelling by 40% and 53%, respectively, no effect on neurological outcome or mortality could be demonstrated.Upregulation of tumor necrosis factor α and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 was significantly impeded.Levosimendan demonstrated significant neuroprotective properties in a rat model of transient brain ischemia by reducing reperfusion injury.

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ABSTRACT

Background: Neuroprotective strategies in ischemic stroke are an important challenge in clinical and experimental research as an adjunct to reperfusion therapy that may reduce neurologic injury and improve outcome. The neuroprotective properties of levosimendan in traumatic brain injury in vitro, transient global brain ischemia and focal spinal cord ischemia suggest the potential for similar effects in transient brain ischemia.

Methods: Transient brain ischemia was induced for 60 min by intraluminal occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in 40 male Wistar rats under general anesthesia with s-ketamine and xylazine and with continuous monitoring of their blood pressure and cerebral perfusion. Five minutes before inducing reperfusion, a levosimendan bolus (24 μg kg -1) was administered over a 20 minute period. Infarct size, brain swelling, neurological function and the expression of inflammatory markers were quantified 24 hours after reperfusion.

Results: Although levosimendan limited the infarct size and brain swelling by 40% and 53%, respectively, no effect on neurological outcome or mortality could be demonstrated. Upregulation of tumor necrosis factor α and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 was significantly impeded. Cerebral blood flow during reperfusion was significantly reduced as a consequence of sustained autoregulation.

Conclusions: Levosimendan demonstrated significant neuroprotective properties in a rat model of transient brain ischemia by reducing reperfusion injury.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Flow of animals related to stage of experiment.
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Figure 1: Flow of animals related to stage of experiment.

Mentions: Twenty-two and 18 animals were assigned to the control group and the levosimendan group, respectively. Eleven controls and 13 levosimendan-treated animals survived 24 hours after reperfusion. Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) led to the death of four animals in the control group. The cause of death for the remaining seven animals could not be determined, but may have been related to a failure of reperfusion. Of the remaining animals, seven in the control group and nine in the levosimendan group demonstrated a cortical infarct after reperfusion. The eight animals with failed reperfusion or lack of involvement of the cortex in the infarcted area were excluded from further analysis. There were no significant differences between the control group and the levosimendan group with respect to survival, infarct pattern or the rate of reperfusion (Figure 1).


Levosimendan limits reperfusion injury in a rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model.

Hein M, Zoremba N, Bleilevens C, Bruells C, Rossaint R, Roehl AB - BMC Neurol (2013)

Flow of animals related to stage of experiment.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3750823&req=5

Figure 1: Flow of animals related to stage of experiment.
Mentions: Twenty-two and 18 animals were assigned to the control group and the levosimendan group, respectively. Eleven controls and 13 levosimendan-treated animals survived 24 hours after reperfusion. Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) led to the death of four animals in the control group. The cause of death for the remaining seven animals could not be determined, but may have been related to a failure of reperfusion. Of the remaining animals, seven in the control group and nine in the levosimendan group demonstrated a cortical infarct after reperfusion. The eight animals with failed reperfusion or lack of involvement of the cortex in the infarcted area were excluded from further analysis. There were no significant differences between the control group and the levosimendan group with respect to survival, infarct pattern or the rate of reperfusion (Figure 1).

Bottom Line: Although levosimendan limited the infarct size and brain swelling by 40% and 53%, respectively, no effect on neurological outcome or mortality could be demonstrated.Upregulation of tumor necrosis factor α and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 was significantly impeded.Levosimendan demonstrated significant neuroprotective properties in a rat model of transient brain ischemia by reducing reperfusion injury.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: Neuroprotective strategies in ischemic stroke are an important challenge in clinical and experimental research as an adjunct to reperfusion therapy that may reduce neurologic injury and improve outcome. The neuroprotective properties of levosimendan in traumatic brain injury in vitro, transient global brain ischemia and focal spinal cord ischemia suggest the potential for similar effects in transient brain ischemia.

Methods: Transient brain ischemia was induced for 60 min by intraluminal occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in 40 male Wistar rats under general anesthesia with s-ketamine and xylazine and with continuous monitoring of their blood pressure and cerebral perfusion. Five minutes before inducing reperfusion, a levosimendan bolus (24 μg kg -1) was administered over a 20 minute period. Infarct size, brain swelling, neurological function and the expression of inflammatory markers were quantified 24 hours after reperfusion.

Results: Although levosimendan limited the infarct size and brain swelling by 40% and 53%, respectively, no effect on neurological outcome or mortality could be demonstrated. Upregulation of tumor necrosis factor α and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 was significantly impeded. Cerebral blood flow during reperfusion was significantly reduced as a consequence of sustained autoregulation.

Conclusions: Levosimendan demonstrated significant neuroprotective properties in a rat model of transient brain ischemia by reducing reperfusion injury.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus