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A novel implementation of mARC treatment for non-dedicated planning systems using converted IMRT plans.

Dzierma Y, Nuesken F, Licht N, Ruebe C - Radiat Oncol (2013)

Bottom Line: For all plans, the treatment time was noticeably reduced by conversion to mARC.We present the feasibility test for converting IMRT step-and-shoot plans from the RTP-output of any treatment planning system (Philips Pinnacle and Prowess Panther, in our case) into mARC plans.The feasibility and dosimetric equivalence is demonstrated for the examples of a prostate and a head-and-neck patient.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: The modulated arc (mARC) technique has recently been introduced by Siemens as an analogue to VMAT treatment. However, up to now only one certified treatment planning system supports mARC planning. We therefore present a conversion algorithm capable of converting IMRT plans created by any treatment planning system into mARC plans, with the hope of expanding the availability of mARC to a larger range of clinical users and researchers. As additional advantages, our implementation offers improved functionality for planning hybrid arcs and provides an equivalent step-and-shoot plan for each mARC plan, which can be used as a back-up concept in institutions where only one linac is equipped with mARC.

Methods: We present a feasibility study to outline a practical implementation of mARC plan conversion using Philips Pinnacle and Prowess Panther. We present examples for three different kinds of prostate and head-and-neck plans, for 6 MV and flattening-filter-free (FFF) 7 MV photon energies, which are dosimetrically verified.

Results: It is generally more difficult to create good quality IMRT plans in Pinnacle using a large number of beams and few segments. We present different ways of optimization as examples. By careful choosing the beam and segment arrangement and inversion objectives, we achieve plan qualities similar to our usual IMRT plans. The conversion of the plans to mARC format yields functional plans, which can be irradiated without incidences. Absolute dosimetric verification of both the step-and-shoot and mARC plans by point dose measurements showed deviations below 5% local dose, mARC plans deviated from step-and-shoot plans by no more than 1%. The agreement between GafChromic film measurements of planar dose before and after mARC conversion is excellent. The comparison of the 3D dose distribution measured by PTW Octavius 729 2D-Array with the step-and-shoot plans and with the TPS is well above the pass criteria of 90% of the points falling within 5% local dose and 3 mm distance to agreement. For all plans, the treatment time was noticeably reduced by conversion to mARC.

Conclusions: We present the feasibility test for converting IMRT step-and-shoot plans from the RTP-output of any treatment planning system (Philips Pinnacle and Prowess Panther, in our case) into mARC plans. The feasibility and dosimetric equivalence is demonstrated for the examples of a prostate and a head-and-neck patient.

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Schematic workflow of treatment plan creation, conversion into mARC until transfer to the linear accelerator.
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Figure 1: Schematic workflow of treatment plan creation, conversion into mARC until transfer to the linear accelerator.

Mentions: Our approach to mARC planning in Pinnacle relies on performing “normal“ IMRT planning using direct machine parameter optimization (DMPO) for 18 to 36 beams, and then reformatting the output RTP-file [6] to conform to mARC standards (Figure 1). In principle, this is the same method as is applied in SmartArc planning, where a first IMRT-like optimization is performed using beams spaced between 12° and 24° apart, the segments of which are then reorganized to create an arc with control points every 2° to 6° [7]. Therefore, each RapidArc plan can be interpreted as an equal-quality IMRT plan with one beam and one segment placed at each control point (resulting in a larger number of beam directions than routinely used in IMRT treatments). Vice versa, we move from the IMRT planning with equidistantly spaced beams, possibly including more than one segment, to an arc treatment to be irradiated as mARC. This method combines the advantage of arc-based treatment, which is both the speed and the many gantry angles, with the advantage of IMRT, i.e. free choice of MLC configuration and optimal distribution of hybrid segments.


A novel implementation of mARC treatment for non-dedicated planning systems using converted IMRT plans.

Dzierma Y, Nuesken F, Licht N, Ruebe C - Radiat Oncol (2013)

Schematic workflow of treatment plan creation, conversion into mARC until transfer to the linear accelerator.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3750816&req=5

Figure 1: Schematic workflow of treatment plan creation, conversion into mARC until transfer to the linear accelerator.
Mentions: Our approach to mARC planning in Pinnacle relies on performing “normal“ IMRT planning using direct machine parameter optimization (DMPO) for 18 to 36 beams, and then reformatting the output RTP-file [6] to conform to mARC standards (Figure 1). In principle, this is the same method as is applied in SmartArc planning, where a first IMRT-like optimization is performed using beams spaced between 12° and 24° apart, the segments of which are then reorganized to create an arc with control points every 2° to 6° [7]. Therefore, each RapidArc plan can be interpreted as an equal-quality IMRT plan with one beam and one segment placed at each control point (resulting in a larger number of beam directions than routinely used in IMRT treatments). Vice versa, we move from the IMRT planning with equidistantly spaced beams, possibly including more than one segment, to an arc treatment to be irradiated as mARC. This method combines the advantage of arc-based treatment, which is both the speed and the many gantry angles, with the advantage of IMRT, i.e. free choice of MLC configuration and optimal distribution of hybrid segments.

Bottom Line: For all plans, the treatment time was noticeably reduced by conversion to mARC.We present the feasibility test for converting IMRT step-and-shoot plans from the RTP-output of any treatment planning system (Philips Pinnacle and Prowess Panther, in our case) into mARC plans.The feasibility and dosimetric equivalence is demonstrated for the examples of a prostate and a head-and-neck patient.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: The modulated arc (mARC) technique has recently been introduced by Siemens as an analogue to VMAT treatment. However, up to now only one certified treatment planning system supports mARC planning. We therefore present a conversion algorithm capable of converting IMRT plans created by any treatment planning system into mARC plans, with the hope of expanding the availability of mARC to a larger range of clinical users and researchers. As additional advantages, our implementation offers improved functionality for planning hybrid arcs and provides an equivalent step-and-shoot plan for each mARC plan, which can be used as a back-up concept in institutions where only one linac is equipped with mARC.

Methods: We present a feasibility study to outline a practical implementation of mARC plan conversion using Philips Pinnacle and Prowess Panther. We present examples for three different kinds of prostate and head-and-neck plans, for 6 MV and flattening-filter-free (FFF) 7 MV photon energies, which are dosimetrically verified.

Results: It is generally more difficult to create good quality IMRT plans in Pinnacle using a large number of beams and few segments. We present different ways of optimization as examples. By careful choosing the beam and segment arrangement and inversion objectives, we achieve plan qualities similar to our usual IMRT plans. The conversion of the plans to mARC format yields functional plans, which can be irradiated without incidences. Absolute dosimetric verification of both the step-and-shoot and mARC plans by point dose measurements showed deviations below 5% local dose, mARC plans deviated from step-and-shoot plans by no more than 1%. The agreement between GafChromic film measurements of planar dose before and after mARC conversion is excellent. The comparison of the 3D dose distribution measured by PTW Octavius 729 2D-Array with the step-and-shoot plans and with the TPS is well above the pass criteria of 90% of the points falling within 5% local dose and 3 mm distance to agreement. For all plans, the treatment time was noticeably reduced by conversion to mARC.

Conclusions: We present the feasibility test for converting IMRT step-and-shoot plans from the RTP-output of any treatment planning system (Philips Pinnacle and Prowess Panther, in our case) into mARC plans. The feasibility and dosimetric equivalence is demonstrated for the examples of a prostate and a head-and-neck patient.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus