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The immune modifying effects of amino acids on gut-associated lymphoid tissue.

Ruth MR, Field CJ - J Anim Sci Biotechnol (2013)

Bottom Line: Both oral and parenteral feeding studies have established convincing evidence that not only the total protein intake, but the availability of specific dietary amino acids (in particular glutamine, glutamate, and arginine, and perhaps methionine, cysteine and threonine) are essential to optimizing the immune functions of the intestine and the proximal resident immune cells.These amino acids each have unique properties that include, maintaining the integrity, growth and function of the intestine, as well as normalizing inflammatory cytokine secretion and improving T-lymphocyte numbers, specific T cell functions, and the secretion of IgA by lamina propria cells.Our understanding of this area has come from studies that have supplemented single amino acids to a mixed protein diet and measuring the effect on specific immune parameters.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, 4-126A Li Ka Shing Health Research Innovation Centre, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada. cjfield@ualberta.ca.

ABSTRACT
The intestine and the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) are essential components of whole body immune defense, protecting the body from foreign antigens and pathogens, while allowing tolerance to commensal bacteria and dietary antigens. The requirement for protein to support the immune system is well established. Less is known regarding the immune modifying properties of individual amino acids, particularly on the GALT. Both oral and parenteral feeding studies have established convincing evidence that not only the total protein intake, but the availability of specific dietary amino acids (in particular glutamine, glutamate, and arginine, and perhaps methionine, cysteine and threonine) are essential to optimizing the immune functions of the intestine and the proximal resident immune cells. These amino acids each have unique properties that include, maintaining the integrity, growth and function of the intestine, as well as normalizing inflammatory cytokine secretion and improving T-lymphocyte numbers, specific T cell functions, and the secretion of IgA by lamina propria cells. Our understanding of this area has come from studies that have supplemented single amino acids to a mixed protein diet and measuring the effect on specific immune parameters. Future studies should be designed using amino acid mixtures that target a number of specific functions of GALT in order to optimize immune function in domestic animals and humans during critical periods of development and various disease states.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Diagram of the Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue.
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Figure 1: Diagram of the Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue.

Mentions: GALT, the largest immune organ in the body of humans and domestic animals, contains a variety of immune cell types from the innate and acquired immune systems (as reviewed by[9]). Because of the proximity to the microbiome and the immediate contact with food, it is continually exposed to both ‘normal’ and potentially dangerous antigens. Accordingly, GALT develops in a manner that allows non-pathogenic substances, such as commensal bacteria, to survive and enables tolerance to food antigens, while protecting the host from pathogenic organisms and other potentially toxic substances[9]. GALT is considered a component of the mucosal immune system and is composed of aggregated tissue including Peyer’s patches (PPs) and solitary lymphoid follicles, and non-aggregated cells in the lamina propria, intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs), as well as mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs)[9]. Collectively, GALT plays a critical role in the development of the systemic immune response. As a primary site of antigen exposure it primes naïve T- and B-lymphocytes that develop into effector cells which migrate from the intestine to other sites of the body to protect against immune challenges, such as invading pathogens (Figure 1).


The immune modifying effects of amino acids on gut-associated lymphoid tissue.

Ruth MR, Field CJ - J Anim Sci Biotechnol (2013)

Diagram of the Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3750756&req=5

Figure 1: Diagram of the Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue.
Mentions: GALT, the largest immune organ in the body of humans and domestic animals, contains a variety of immune cell types from the innate and acquired immune systems (as reviewed by[9]). Because of the proximity to the microbiome and the immediate contact with food, it is continually exposed to both ‘normal’ and potentially dangerous antigens. Accordingly, GALT develops in a manner that allows non-pathogenic substances, such as commensal bacteria, to survive and enables tolerance to food antigens, while protecting the host from pathogenic organisms and other potentially toxic substances[9]. GALT is considered a component of the mucosal immune system and is composed of aggregated tissue including Peyer’s patches (PPs) and solitary lymphoid follicles, and non-aggregated cells in the lamina propria, intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs), as well as mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs)[9]. Collectively, GALT plays a critical role in the development of the systemic immune response. As a primary site of antigen exposure it primes naïve T- and B-lymphocytes that develop into effector cells which migrate from the intestine to other sites of the body to protect against immune challenges, such as invading pathogens (Figure 1).

Bottom Line: Both oral and parenteral feeding studies have established convincing evidence that not only the total protein intake, but the availability of specific dietary amino acids (in particular glutamine, glutamate, and arginine, and perhaps methionine, cysteine and threonine) are essential to optimizing the immune functions of the intestine and the proximal resident immune cells.These amino acids each have unique properties that include, maintaining the integrity, growth and function of the intestine, as well as normalizing inflammatory cytokine secretion and improving T-lymphocyte numbers, specific T cell functions, and the secretion of IgA by lamina propria cells.Our understanding of this area has come from studies that have supplemented single amino acids to a mixed protein diet and measuring the effect on specific immune parameters.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, 4-126A Li Ka Shing Health Research Innovation Centre, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada. cjfield@ualberta.ca.

ABSTRACT
The intestine and the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) are essential components of whole body immune defense, protecting the body from foreign antigens and pathogens, while allowing tolerance to commensal bacteria and dietary antigens. The requirement for protein to support the immune system is well established. Less is known regarding the immune modifying properties of individual amino acids, particularly on the GALT. Both oral and parenteral feeding studies have established convincing evidence that not only the total protein intake, but the availability of specific dietary amino acids (in particular glutamine, glutamate, and arginine, and perhaps methionine, cysteine and threonine) are essential to optimizing the immune functions of the intestine and the proximal resident immune cells. These amino acids each have unique properties that include, maintaining the integrity, growth and function of the intestine, as well as normalizing inflammatory cytokine secretion and improving T-lymphocyte numbers, specific T cell functions, and the secretion of IgA by lamina propria cells. Our understanding of this area has come from studies that have supplemented single amino acids to a mixed protein diet and measuring the effect on specific immune parameters. Future studies should be designed using amino acid mixtures that target a number of specific functions of GALT in order to optimize immune function in domestic animals and humans during critical periods of development and various disease states.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus