Limits...
Is a Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA)-based assay a valid tool for detecting risky malaria blood donations in Africa?

Atchade PS, Doderer-Lang C, Chabi N, Perrotey S, Abdelrahman T, Akpovi CD, Anani L, Bigot A, Sanni A, Candolfi E - Malar. J. (2013)

Bottom Line: Parasite density (PD) was expressed as the number of parasites per μL of blood.Donors' antigenaemia and antibody levels varied significantly (P <0.05) over the course of the four seasons.Routine screening of all donated blood would prevent infected blood donations and reduce P. falciparum transmission in critical patients, such as children and pregnant women.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Institut de Parasitologie et de Pathologie Tropicale (IPPTS) - Fédération de Médecine Translationnelle, Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

ABSTRACT

Background: Malaria is a leading cause of mortality in southern Benin. The main causative agent, Plasmodium falciparum, poses a threat on critical transfusions in pregnant women and children. This study's objective was to compare the performance of different malaria screening methods in blood donors in southern Benin, a malaria-endemic country.

Methods: Blood from 2,515 voluntary blood donors in Benin was collected over a period of 10 months in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) tubes, which were then classified according to extraction time: long rainy season, short dry season, short rainy season, and long dry season. Microscopic examination was used to count parasites. Parasite density (PD) was expressed as the number of parasites per μL of blood. Pan Plasmodium pLDH detection was assessed by an ELISA-malaria antigen test. Using crude soluble P. falciparum antigens, an ELISA-malaria antibody test detected anti-Plasmodium antibodies.

Results: Among the 2,515 blood donors (2,025 males and 488 females) screened, the rate of asymptomatic Plasmodium carriage was 295/2,515 (11.72%, 95% CI: 10.5-13.1%). Males had a higher infection rate (12.4%) than did females (8.8%). Parasite density was very low: between seven and100 parasites per μL of blood was reported in 80% of donors with parasitaemia. Three Plasmodium species were diagnosed: P. falciparum in 280/295 patients (95.0%), Plasmodium malariae in 14/295 (5.0%), and Plasmodium ovale in 1/295 (0.34%). Malaria prevalence in donors was higher during the rainy seasons (13.7%) compared with the dry seasons (9.9%). The use of a highly sensitive assay enabled pan Plasmodium pLDH detection in 966/2,515 (38.4%, 95% CI: 36.5%-40.3%). Malaria antibody prevalence was 1,859/2,515 (73.9%, 95% CI: 72.16-75.6%). Donors' antigenaemia and antibody levels varied significantly (P <0.05) over the course of the four seasons. The highest antigenaemia rate 323/630 (51.3%), was observed during the short rainy season, while the highest antibody prevalence, 751/886 (84.7%), was recorded during the long dry season.

Conclusion: Blood donations infected with Plasmodium can transmit malaria to donation recipients. Malaria diagnostic methods are currently available, but the feasibility criteria for mass screening in endemic areas become preponderant. Detection of the pLDH antigen seems to be an adequate screening tool in endemic areas, for this antigen indicates parasite presence. Routine screening of all donated blood would prevent infected blood donations and reduce P. falciparum transmission in critical patients, such as children and pregnant women. This tool would also decrease medical prophylaxis in donation recipients and contribute to lower Plasmodium resistance.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Prevalence rates were calculated for Plasmodium presence by microscopy and pLDH detection, and for malaria antibodies in a population of asymptomatic blood donors (n= 2,515) over a ten-month period, divided in long rainy season (LRS) from May to July 590/2,515, short dry season (SDS) from August to September 409/2,515, short rainy season (SRS) from October to November 100/630, and long dry season (LDS) from December to February 80/886.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3750723&req=5

Figure 2: Prevalence rates were calculated for Plasmodium presence by microscopy and pLDH detection, and for malaria antibodies in a population of asymptomatic blood donors (n= 2,515) over a ten-month period, divided in long rainy season (LRS) from May to July 590/2,515, short dry season (SDS) from August to September 409/2,515, short rainy season (SRS) from October to November 100/630, and long dry season (LDS) from December to February 80/886.

Mentions: Plasmodium antibody detection by ELISA in 2,515 donors showed a high positivity rate with a prevalence of 73.9% (1,859/2,515) (95% CI: 72.1-75.6%). Equivocal results were found in 13.1% of samples (329/2,515), and there were no detectable antibodies in 327 donors (13.0%, 95% CI: 11.7-14.4%) (Table 6B). Antibody prevalence differed significantly according to the season (P <0.05) (Table 7 and Figure 2).


Is a Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA)-based assay a valid tool for detecting risky malaria blood donations in Africa?

Atchade PS, Doderer-Lang C, Chabi N, Perrotey S, Abdelrahman T, Akpovi CD, Anani L, Bigot A, Sanni A, Candolfi E - Malar. J. (2013)

Prevalence rates were calculated for Plasmodium presence by microscopy and pLDH detection, and for malaria antibodies in a population of asymptomatic blood donors (n= 2,515) over a ten-month period, divided in long rainy season (LRS) from May to July 590/2,515, short dry season (SDS) from August to September 409/2,515, short rainy season (SRS) from October to November 100/630, and long dry season (LDS) from December to February 80/886.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3750723&req=5

Figure 2: Prevalence rates were calculated for Plasmodium presence by microscopy and pLDH detection, and for malaria antibodies in a population of asymptomatic blood donors (n= 2,515) over a ten-month period, divided in long rainy season (LRS) from May to July 590/2,515, short dry season (SDS) from August to September 409/2,515, short rainy season (SRS) from October to November 100/630, and long dry season (LDS) from December to February 80/886.
Mentions: Plasmodium antibody detection by ELISA in 2,515 donors showed a high positivity rate with a prevalence of 73.9% (1,859/2,515) (95% CI: 72.1-75.6%). Equivocal results were found in 13.1% of samples (329/2,515), and there were no detectable antibodies in 327 donors (13.0%, 95% CI: 11.7-14.4%) (Table 6B). Antibody prevalence differed significantly according to the season (P <0.05) (Table 7 and Figure 2).

Bottom Line: Parasite density (PD) was expressed as the number of parasites per μL of blood.Donors' antigenaemia and antibody levels varied significantly (P <0.05) over the course of the four seasons.Routine screening of all donated blood would prevent infected blood donations and reduce P. falciparum transmission in critical patients, such as children and pregnant women.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Institut de Parasitologie et de Pathologie Tropicale (IPPTS) - Fédération de Médecine Translationnelle, Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

ABSTRACT

Background: Malaria is a leading cause of mortality in southern Benin. The main causative agent, Plasmodium falciparum, poses a threat on critical transfusions in pregnant women and children. This study's objective was to compare the performance of different malaria screening methods in blood donors in southern Benin, a malaria-endemic country.

Methods: Blood from 2,515 voluntary blood donors in Benin was collected over a period of 10 months in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) tubes, which were then classified according to extraction time: long rainy season, short dry season, short rainy season, and long dry season. Microscopic examination was used to count parasites. Parasite density (PD) was expressed as the number of parasites per μL of blood. Pan Plasmodium pLDH detection was assessed by an ELISA-malaria antigen test. Using crude soluble P. falciparum antigens, an ELISA-malaria antibody test detected anti-Plasmodium antibodies.

Results: Among the 2,515 blood donors (2,025 males and 488 females) screened, the rate of asymptomatic Plasmodium carriage was 295/2,515 (11.72%, 95% CI: 10.5-13.1%). Males had a higher infection rate (12.4%) than did females (8.8%). Parasite density was very low: between seven and100 parasites per μL of blood was reported in 80% of donors with parasitaemia. Three Plasmodium species were diagnosed: P. falciparum in 280/295 patients (95.0%), Plasmodium malariae in 14/295 (5.0%), and Plasmodium ovale in 1/295 (0.34%). Malaria prevalence in donors was higher during the rainy seasons (13.7%) compared with the dry seasons (9.9%). The use of a highly sensitive assay enabled pan Plasmodium pLDH detection in 966/2,515 (38.4%, 95% CI: 36.5%-40.3%). Malaria antibody prevalence was 1,859/2,515 (73.9%, 95% CI: 72.16-75.6%). Donors' antigenaemia and antibody levels varied significantly (P <0.05) over the course of the four seasons. The highest antigenaemia rate 323/630 (51.3%), was observed during the short rainy season, while the highest antibody prevalence, 751/886 (84.7%), was recorded during the long dry season.

Conclusion: Blood donations infected with Plasmodium can transmit malaria to donation recipients. Malaria diagnostic methods are currently available, but the feasibility criteria for mass screening in endemic areas become preponderant. Detection of the pLDH antigen seems to be an adequate screening tool in endemic areas, for this antigen indicates parasite presence. Routine screening of all donated blood would prevent infected blood donations and reduce P. falciparum transmission in critical patients, such as children and pregnant women. This tool would also decrease medical prophylaxis in donation recipients and contribute to lower Plasmodium resistance.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus