Limits...
High attack rate for malaria through irregular migration routes to a country on verge of elimination.

Wickramage K, Premaratne RG, Peiris SL, Mosca D - Malar. J. (2013)

Bottom Line: Irregular migration in the form of human smuggling and human trafficking is recognized as a global public health issue.Thirty-two cases of Plasmodium falciparum were detected in 534 irregular migrants returning to Sri Lanka via failed human smuggling routes from West Africa in 2012, contributing to the largest burden of imported cases in Sri Lanka as it entered elimination phase.Beyond the criminality and human rights abuse, irregular migration plays an important, but often forgotten, pathway for malaria re-introduction.

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Affiliation: Health Unit, International Organization for Migration (IOM), No, 62, Green Path, Ananda Coomaraswamy Road, Colombo 3, Sri Lanka. kwickramage@iom.int

ABSTRACT
Irregular migration in the form of human smuggling and human trafficking is recognized as a global public health issue. Thirty-two cases of Plasmodium falciparum were detected in 534 irregular migrants returning to Sri Lanka via failed human smuggling routes from West Africa in 2012, contributing to the largest burden of imported cases in Sri Lanka as it entered elimination phase. Beyond the criminality and human rights abuse, irregular migration plays an important, but often forgotten, pathway for malaria re-introduction. Active surveillance of the growing numbers of irregular migrant flows becomes an important strategy as Sri Lanka advances towards goals of malaria elimination.

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Irregular migration routes from Sri Lanka to Canada via West Africa. Blue indicates air routes and red markers represent the nine countries to which migrants entered before travelling via land routes to converge on a single port (Sierra Leone) to board a cargo vessel. Red dotted line represents the planned sea route. (Image developed by corresponding author. Map derived by Google maps).
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Figure 2: Irregular migration routes from Sri Lanka to Canada via West Africa. Blue indicates air routes and red markers represent the nine countries to which migrants entered before travelling via land routes to converge on a single port (Sierra Leone) to board a cargo vessel. Red dotted line represents the planned sea route. (Image developed by corresponding author. Map derived by Google maps).

Mentions: Economic hardship, disenfranchisement and other social determinants form powerful push-factors for those marginalized to seek opportunities through irregular migration. The rational for such increased people movements from Sri Lanka are interlinked to complex social and political determinants, which warrants a detailed description beyond the scope of this research article. The largest group of returnees was from Benin (n=20, 77%), followed by Nigeria (9%), Guinea (13%), Liberia (6%), Togo (6%) and Sierra Leone (3%). Socio-demographic data revealed that the majority were males (91%), young (mean age 30 years), of Tamil ethnicity (94%), and originated from North and Eastern Provinces of Sri Lanka (88%). The average duration of stay in Africa was 20.5 weeks. Their prolonged stay in endemic settings increased the risk of transmission. Qualitative assessments (through return interviews) revealed a number of persons had suffered febrile illnesses during their stay in West Africa. However, details on total number, time and place could not be characterized through such narrative construction. It was also revealed that smugglers used force and intimidation to prevent the migrants from escaping. The smugglers intended to channel all cohorts of migrants to a single port (Sierra Leone), and then charter a large fishing vessel to enter Canada illegally (FigureĀ 2).


High attack rate for malaria through irregular migration routes to a country on verge of elimination.

Wickramage K, Premaratne RG, Peiris SL, Mosca D - Malar. J. (2013)

Irregular migration routes from Sri Lanka to Canada via West Africa. Blue indicates air routes and red markers represent the nine countries to which migrants entered before travelling via land routes to converge on a single port (Sierra Leone) to board a cargo vessel. Red dotted line represents the planned sea route. (Image developed by corresponding author. Map derived by Google maps).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3750601&req=5

Figure 2: Irregular migration routes from Sri Lanka to Canada via West Africa. Blue indicates air routes and red markers represent the nine countries to which migrants entered before travelling via land routes to converge on a single port (Sierra Leone) to board a cargo vessel. Red dotted line represents the planned sea route. (Image developed by corresponding author. Map derived by Google maps).
Mentions: Economic hardship, disenfranchisement and other social determinants form powerful push-factors for those marginalized to seek opportunities through irregular migration. The rational for such increased people movements from Sri Lanka are interlinked to complex social and political determinants, which warrants a detailed description beyond the scope of this research article. The largest group of returnees was from Benin (n=20, 77%), followed by Nigeria (9%), Guinea (13%), Liberia (6%), Togo (6%) and Sierra Leone (3%). Socio-demographic data revealed that the majority were males (91%), young (mean age 30 years), of Tamil ethnicity (94%), and originated from North and Eastern Provinces of Sri Lanka (88%). The average duration of stay in Africa was 20.5 weeks. Their prolonged stay in endemic settings increased the risk of transmission. Qualitative assessments (through return interviews) revealed a number of persons had suffered febrile illnesses during their stay in West Africa. However, details on total number, time and place could not be characterized through such narrative construction. It was also revealed that smugglers used force and intimidation to prevent the migrants from escaping. The smugglers intended to channel all cohorts of migrants to a single port (Sierra Leone), and then charter a large fishing vessel to enter Canada illegally (FigureĀ 2).

Bottom Line: Irregular migration in the form of human smuggling and human trafficking is recognized as a global public health issue.Thirty-two cases of Plasmodium falciparum were detected in 534 irregular migrants returning to Sri Lanka via failed human smuggling routes from West Africa in 2012, contributing to the largest burden of imported cases in Sri Lanka as it entered elimination phase.Beyond the criminality and human rights abuse, irregular migration plays an important, but often forgotten, pathway for malaria re-introduction.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Health Unit, International Organization for Migration (IOM), No, 62, Green Path, Ananda Coomaraswamy Road, Colombo 3, Sri Lanka. kwickramage@iom.int

ABSTRACT
Irregular migration in the form of human smuggling and human trafficking is recognized as a global public health issue. Thirty-two cases of Plasmodium falciparum were detected in 534 irregular migrants returning to Sri Lanka via failed human smuggling routes from West Africa in 2012, contributing to the largest burden of imported cases in Sri Lanka as it entered elimination phase. Beyond the criminality and human rights abuse, irregular migration plays an important, but often forgotten, pathway for malaria re-introduction. Active surveillance of the growing numbers of irregular migrant flows becomes an important strategy as Sri Lanka advances towards goals of malaria elimination.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus