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Volcanic ash in the air we breathe.

Longo BM, Longo AA - Multidiscip Respir Med (2013)

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Orvis School of Nursing, University of Nevada, Reno 0136, NV, USA. longo@unr.edu.

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Throughout our species brief history, innumerable volcanoes have erupted, and many are the same volcanoes still active today... Volcanic ash particles are fine-sized (<2 mm), pyroclastic fragments that form during eruption as gases exsolve from the magma, develop large bubbles that burst causing fragmentation, and are explosively propelled upward... Subsequent explosions violently shatter the surrounding vent rock and hurl it as fragments into the air... Once airborne, plumes of ash are subject to meteorological effects such as dispersion with wind and removal by rain... Eruptions with low VEI’s 0–2 build volcanoes that passively de-gas and erupt lava effusively; whereas, high VEI’s are characteristic of explosive volcanism... The reactivity of ash particles with lung tissue depends on the morphology, surface area and number of particles... In addition, acidic gases emitted during an eruption can adsorb onto unaltered ash particles, further contributing to the toxicity and pathology caused from exposure... Since the turn of the century, the causal links between exposure to fine-sized particles of urban pollution and cardiorespiratory effects are better understood... Inhalation of fine-sized particles can affect health by increasing oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, blood viscosity, pro-atherothrombosis, blood pressure and autonomic dysfunction of the heart... Increased cardiovascular mortality is associated with exposure to fine-sized particles, noting most deaths are from ischemic events... Undoubtedly, more multidisciplinary studies are needed in the emerging area of volcanic health research... A new study at Mount Etna by Lombardo et al. published in this issue of Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine contributes to the understanding of adverse health effects caused by exposure to volcanic ash... The study identifies an increase in patients with acute cardiorespiratory illnesses presenting to emergency departments during ash fall... Most interesting were the significant cardiovascular, upper and lower respiratory and ocular effects relative to geographic exposure... Health care clinicians practicing in areas near active volcanoes in Italy and around the world have an opportunity to work together with multiple disciplines to increase the public’s awareness of volcanic hazards, provide interventions across levels of prevention, and advocate to authorities on behalf of their patients.

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SEM image of volcanic ash from Mount St. Helen’s eruption. Credit: United States Geological Survey and A.M. Sarna-Wojcicki.
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Figure 1: SEM image of volcanic ash from Mount St. Helen’s eruption. Credit: United States Geological Survey and A.M. Sarna-Wojcicki.


Volcanic ash in the air we breathe.

Longo BM, Longo AA - Multidiscip Respir Med (2013)

SEM image of volcanic ash from Mount St. Helen’s eruption. Credit: United States Geological Survey and A.M. Sarna-Wojcicki.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3750553&req=5

Figure 1: SEM image of volcanic ash from Mount St. Helen’s eruption. Credit: United States Geological Survey and A.M. Sarna-Wojcicki.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Orvis School of Nursing, University of Nevada, Reno 0136, NV, USA. longo@unr.edu.

AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED EXCERPT
Please rate it.

Throughout our species brief history, innumerable volcanoes have erupted, and many are the same volcanoes still active today... Volcanic ash particles are fine-sized (<2 mm), pyroclastic fragments that form during eruption as gases exsolve from the magma, develop large bubbles that burst causing fragmentation, and are explosively propelled upward... Subsequent explosions violently shatter the surrounding vent rock and hurl it as fragments into the air... Once airborne, plumes of ash are subject to meteorological effects such as dispersion with wind and removal by rain... Eruptions with low VEI’s 0–2 build volcanoes that passively de-gas and erupt lava effusively; whereas, high VEI’s are characteristic of explosive volcanism... The reactivity of ash particles with lung tissue depends on the morphology, surface area and number of particles... In addition, acidic gases emitted during an eruption can adsorb onto unaltered ash particles, further contributing to the toxicity and pathology caused from exposure... Since the turn of the century, the causal links between exposure to fine-sized particles of urban pollution and cardiorespiratory effects are better understood... Inhalation of fine-sized particles can affect health by increasing oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, blood viscosity, pro-atherothrombosis, blood pressure and autonomic dysfunction of the heart... Increased cardiovascular mortality is associated with exposure to fine-sized particles, noting most deaths are from ischemic events... Undoubtedly, more multidisciplinary studies are needed in the emerging area of volcanic health research... A new study at Mount Etna by Lombardo et al. published in this issue of Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine contributes to the understanding of adverse health effects caused by exposure to volcanic ash... The study identifies an increase in patients with acute cardiorespiratory illnesses presenting to emergency departments during ash fall... Most interesting were the significant cardiovascular, upper and lower respiratory and ocular effects relative to geographic exposure... Health care clinicians practicing in areas near active volcanoes in Italy and around the world have an opportunity to work together with multiple disciplines to increase the public’s awareness of volcanic hazards, provide interventions across levels of prevention, and advocate to authorities on behalf of their patients.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus