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Germinated brown rice and its bioactives modulate the activity of uterine cells in oophorectomised rats as evidenced by gross cytohistological and immunohistochemical changes.

Muhammad SI, Ismail M, Mahmud RB, Salisu AM, Zakaria ZA - BMC Complement Altern Med (2013)

Bottom Line: GBR and its bioactives treated groups significantly increased the weight and length of both the uterus and the vagina when compared to Oophorectomised non-treated group (OVX-non-treated) (p < 0.05).There was also an increase in the luminal and glandular epithelial cells activity in the treated compared with the untreated groups histologically.GBR improved the length and weight of the uterus and also increased the number of glandular and luminal cells epithelia of the vagina.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: Germinated brown rice (GBR) is gaining momentum in the area of biomedical research due to its increased use as a nutraceutical for the management of diseases. The effect of GBR on the reproductive organs of oophorectomised rats was studied using the gross, cytological, histological and immunohistochemical changes, with the aim of reducing atrophy and dryness of the genital organs in menopause.

Methods: Experimental rats were divided into eight groups of six rats per group. Groups 1, 2 and 3 (sham-operated (SH), oophorectomised without treatment (OVX) and oophorectomised treated with 0.2 mg/kg oestrogen, respectively) served as the controls. The groups 4,5,6,7 and 8 were treated with 20 mg/kg Remifemin, 200 mg/kg of GBR, ASG, oryzanol and GABA, respectively. All treatments were administered orally, once daily for 8 weeks. Vaginal smear cytology was done at the 7th week on all the rats. The weight and dimensions of the uterus and vagina were determined after sacrifice of the rats. Uterine and vaginal tissues were taken for histology and Immunohistochemical examinations.

Results: GBR and its bioactives treated groups significantly increased the weight and length of both the uterus and the vagina when compared to Oophorectomised non-treated group (OVX-non-treated) (p < 0.05). Significant changes were observed in the ratio of cornified epithelial cells and number of leucocytes in the vaginal cytology between the oophorectomised non-treated and treated groups. There was also an increase in the luminal and glandular epithelial cells activity in the treated compared with the untreated groups histologically. Immunohistochemical staining showed specific proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the luminal and glandular epithelium of the treated groups, which was absent in the OVX-non-treated group. GBR improved the length and weight of the uterus and also increased the number of glandular and luminal cells epithelia of the vagina.

Conclusion: GBR and its bioactives could be a potential alternative in improving reproductive system atrophy, dryness and discomfort during menopause.

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Immunohistochemical staining of PCNA showing specific sites of binding on the nuclei in the luminal, glandular epithelium and stromal cells of oopherectomised rat uteri treated with the different fractions of the compounds for 8 weeks. LE = PCNA positive cells staining at the luminal epithelial cells; S = PCNA positive cells staining ofthe stromal cells; GE = PCNA positive cells staining at the glandular epithelial cells cells. (A) Sham operated (No OVX), (B) OVX (No treatment), (C) oestrogen treated (OVX + EST), (D) ASG fraction (OVX + ASG), (E) GABA fraction (OVX + GABA), (F) GBR fraction (OVX + GBR), (G) Remifemin treated (OVX + REM), (H) (OVX + Oryzanol).
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Figure 3: Immunohistochemical staining of PCNA showing specific sites of binding on the nuclei in the luminal, glandular epithelium and stromal cells of oopherectomised rat uteri treated with the different fractions of the compounds for 8 weeks. LE = PCNA positive cells staining at the luminal epithelial cells; S = PCNA positive cells staining ofthe stromal cells; GE = PCNA positive cells staining at the glandular epithelial cells cells. (A) Sham operated (No OVX), (B) OVX (No treatment), (C) oestrogen treated (OVX + EST), (D) ASG fraction (OVX + ASG), (E) GABA fraction (OVX + GABA), (F) GBR fraction (OVX + GBR), (G) Remifemin treated (OVX + REM), (H) (OVX + Oryzanol).

Mentions: Immunoreactivity for PCNA was observed in the luminal and glandular epithelium, as well as the stromal cells, which was observed in positive control sections and also in treated groups. Positive cells exhibited a dark-brown homogeneous staining, while the light-brown staining areas showed less reactivity. Sham-operated rats as well as oestrogen-, oryzanol- and Remifemin-treated groups all showed PCNA reaction on stromal and luminal epithelial linings as shown in Figures 3A, C, G and H. Groups treated with ASG, GBR and GABA showed PCNA reaction on stromal, luminal and glandular epithelial cells, with the group treated with GABA showing strong reactivity as shown in Figures 3D, E and F. Oophorectomised non-treated rats showed a mild PCNA reaction only on the columnar epithelial lining (Figure 3B).


Germinated brown rice and its bioactives modulate the activity of uterine cells in oophorectomised rats as evidenced by gross cytohistological and immunohistochemical changes.

Muhammad SI, Ismail M, Mahmud RB, Salisu AM, Zakaria ZA - BMC Complement Altern Med (2013)

Immunohistochemical staining of PCNA showing specific sites of binding on the nuclei in the luminal, glandular epithelium and stromal cells of oopherectomised rat uteri treated with the different fractions of the compounds for 8 weeks. LE = PCNA positive cells staining at the luminal epithelial cells; S = PCNA positive cells staining ofthe stromal cells; GE = PCNA positive cells staining at the glandular epithelial cells cells. (A) Sham operated (No OVX), (B) OVX (No treatment), (C) oestrogen treated (OVX + EST), (D) ASG fraction (OVX + ASG), (E) GABA fraction (OVX + GABA), (F) GBR fraction (OVX + GBR), (G) Remifemin treated (OVX + REM), (H) (OVX + Oryzanol).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3750460&req=5

Figure 3: Immunohistochemical staining of PCNA showing specific sites of binding on the nuclei in the luminal, glandular epithelium and stromal cells of oopherectomised rat uteri treated with the different fractions of the compounds for 8 weeks. LE = PCNA positive cells staining at the luminal epithelial cells; S = PCNA positive cells staining ofthe stromal cells; GE = PCNA positive cells staining at the glandular epithelial cells cells. (A) Sham operated (No OVX), (B) OVX (No treatment), (C) oestrogen treated (OVX + EST), (D) ASG fraction (OVX + ASG), (E) GABA fraction (OVX + GABA), (F) GBR fraction (OVX + GBR), (G) Remifemin treated (OVX + REM), (H) (OVX + Oryzanol).
Mentions: Immunoreactivity for PCNA was observed in the luminal and glandular epithelium, as well as the stromal cells, which was observed in positive control sections and also in treated groups. Positive cells exhibited a dark-brown homogeneous staining, while the light-brown staining areas showed less reactivity. Sham-operated rats as well as oestrogen-, oryzanol- and Remifemin-treated groups all showed PCNA reaction on stromal and luminal epithelial linings as shown in Figures 3A, C, G and H. Groups treated with ASG, GBR and GABA showed PCNA reaction on stromal, luminal and glandular epithelial cells, with the group treated with GABA showing strong reactivity as shown in Figures 3D, E and F. Oophorectomised non-treated rats showed a mild PCNA reaction only on the columnar epithelial lining (Figure 3B).

Bottom Line: GBR and its bioactives treated groups significantly increased the weight and length of both the uterus and the vagina when compared to Oophorectomised non-treated group (OVX-non-treated) (p < 0.05).There was also an increase in the luminal and glandular epithelial cells activity in the treated compared with the untreated groups histologically.GBR improved the length and weight of the uterus and also increased the number of glandular and luminal cells epithelia of the vagina.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: Germinated brown rice (GBR) is gaining momentum in the area of biomedical research due to its increased use as a nutraceutical for the management of diseases. The effect of GBR on the reproductive organs of oophorectomised rats was studied using the gross, cytological, histological and immunohistochemical changes, with the aim of reducing atrophy and dryness of the genital organs in menopause.

Methods: Experimental rats were divided into eight groups of six rats per group. Groups 1, 2 and 3 (sham-operated (SH), oophorectomised without treatment (OVX) and oophorectomised treated with 0.2 mg/kg oestrogen, respectively) served as the controls. The groups 4,5,6,7 and 8 were treated with 20 mg/kg Remifemin, 200 mg/kg of GBR, ASG, oryzanol and GABA, respectively. All treatments were administered orally, once daily for 8 weeks. Vaginal smear cytology was done at the 7th week on all the rats. The weight and dimensions of the uterus and vagina were determined after sacrifice of the rats. Uterine and vaginal tissues were taken for histology and Immunohistochemical examinations.

Results: GBR and its bioactives treated groups significantly increased the weight and length of both the uterus and the vagina when compared to Oophorectomised non-treated group (OVX-non-treated) (p < 0.05). Significant changes were observed in the ratio of cornified epithelial cells and number of leucocytes in the vaginal cytology between the oophorectomised non-treated and treated groups. There was also an increase in the luminal and glandular epithelial cells activity in the treated compared with the untreated groups histologically. Immunohistochemical staining showed specific proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the luminal and glandular epithelium of the treated groups, which was absent in the OVX-non-treated group. GBR improved the length and weight of the uterus and also increased the number of glandular and luminal cells epithelia of the vagina.

Conclusion: GBR and its bioactives could be a potential alternative in improving reproductive system atrophy, dryness and discomfort during menopause.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus