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A novel approach to fabricate silk nanofibers containing hydroxyapatite nanoparticles using a three-way stopcock connector.

Sheikh FA, Ju HW, Moon BM, Park HJ, Kim JH, Lee OJ, Park CH - Nanoscale Res Lett (2013)

Bottom Line: In this work, we had successfully used a three-way stopcock connector to mix the two different solutions, and very shortly, this solution is ejected out to form nanofibers due to electric fields.Different blend ratios consisting HAp NPs had been electrospun into nanofibers.These characterization techniques revealed that HAp NPs can be easily introduced in silk nanofibers using a stopcock connector, and this method favorably preserves the intact nature of silk fibroin and HAp NPs.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Nano-Bio Regenerative Medical Institute, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon 200-702, South Korea ; Department of Chemistry, University of Texas-Pan American, Edinburg, Texas 78539, USA.

ABSTRACT
Electrospinning technique is commonly used to produce micro- and/or nanofibers, which utilizes electrical forces to produce polymeric fibers with diameters ranging from several micrometers down to few nanometers. Desirably, electrospun materials provide highly porous structure and appropriate pore size for initial cell attachment and proliferation and thereby enable the exchange of nutrients. Composite nanofibers consisting of silk and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HAp) (NPs) had been considered as an excellent choice due to their efficient biocompatibility and bone-mimicking properties. To prepare these nanofiber composites, it requires the use of acidic solutions which have serious consequences on the nature of both silk and HAp NPs. It is ideal to create these nanofibers using aqueous solutions in which the physicochemical nature of both materials can be retained. However, to create those nanofibers is often difficult to obtain because of the fact that aqueous solutions of silk and HAp NPs can precipitate before they can be ejected into fibers during the electrospinning process. In this work, we had successfully used a three-way stopcock connector to mix the two different solutions, and very shortly, this solution is ejected out to form nanofibers due to electric fields. Different blend ratios consisting HAp NPs had been electrospun into nanofibers. The physicochemical aspects of fabricated nanofiber had been characterized by different state of techniques like that of FE-SEM, EDS, TEM, TEM-EDS, TGA, FT-IR, and XRD. These characterization techniques revealed that HAp NPs can be easily introduced in silk nanofibers using a stopcock connector, and this method favorably preserves the intact nature of silk fibroin and HAp NPs. Moreover, nanofibers obtained by this strategy were tested for cell toxicity and cell attachment studies using NIH 3 T3 fibroblasts which indicated non-toxic behavior and good attachment of cells upon incubation in the presence of nanofibers.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

TEM-EDS image of pristine nanofibers using silk/PEO solution. Single selected fiber shows the area for line EDS (A), the linear EDS analysis along the line appearing from nanofiber (B), graphical results of line mapping for the compounds analyzed as carbon (red) (C) and nitrogen (cyan) (D).
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Figure 9: TEM-EDS image of pristine nanofibers using silk/PEO solution. Single selected fiber shows the area for line EDS (A), the linear EDS analysis along the line appearing from nanofiber (B), graphical results of line mapping for the compounds analyzed as carbon (red) (C) and nitrogen (cyan) (D).

Mentions: To investigate the location and chemical nature of HAp NPs over the nanofibers more precisely, TEM combined with the energy dispersive X-ray (EDS) analysis was done. Figure 9 shows the TEM-EDS results for pristine nanofibers. Figure 9A shows the single fiber under investigation, and the encircled area indicates line mapping. Figure 9B,C,D shows the spectra originating from the former figure (Figure 9A). In this figure, the spectra colored in red indicates carbon, and spectra in cyan indicates nitrogen, which further describes the chemical composition of silk fibroin used for electrospinning. In case of nanofibers modified with HAp NPs, Figure 9 shows the results of TEM-EDS. To get more insight about the location and chemical nature of nanofibers, areas near the site of investigation are encircled, and three fibers are coded as F1, F2, and F3. Two of them indicated as F1 and F3 appear as neat nanofibers without the presence of any extra structure (i.e., HAp), while the nanofiber which is centrally located in this figure shows poking out appearance of HAp within its alignment. Moreover, to get more clear confirmation with regard to the chemical compositions of each compound present in this selected area, Figure 10B,C,D shows the results of line mapping from the former figure (Figure 10A). In this figure, the encircled area near F1, F2, and F3 giving rise to different peaks in different colors are indicated. Briefly, main compounds have been identified as calcium (red) and phosphorous (cyan). From this figure, one can clearly reveal the presence of Ca and P that is more predominating from the central nanofiber (i.e., F2) region which further clarifies the presence of HAp NPs associated with modified nanofibers and simultaneously supports the simple TEM results (Figure 8).


A novel approach to fabricate silk nanofibers containing hydroxyapatite nanoparticles using a three-way stopcock connector.

Sheikh FA, Ju HW, Moon BM, Park HJ, Kim JH, Lee OJ, Park CH - Nanoscale Res Lett (2013)

TEM-EDS image of pristine nanofibers using silk/PEO solution. Single selected fiber shows the area for line EDS (A), the linear EDS analysis along the line appearing from nanofiber (B), graphical results of line mapping for the compounds analyzed as carbon (red) (C) and nitrogen (cyan) (D).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3750300&req=5

Figure 9: TEM-EDS image of pristine nanofibers using silk/PEO solution. Single selected fiber shows the area for line EDS (A), the linear EDS analysis along the line appearing from nanofiber (B), graphical results of line mapping for the compounds analyzed as carbon (red) (C) and nitrogen (cyan) (D).
Mentions: To investigate the location and chemical nature of HAp NPs over the nanofibers more precisely, TEM combined with the energy dispersive X-ray (EDS) analysis was done. Figure 9 shows the TEM-EDS results for pristine nanofibers. Figure 9A shows the single fiber under investigation, and the encircled area indicates line mapping. Figure 9B,C,D shows the spectra originating from the former figure (Figure 9A). In this figure, the spectra colored in red indicates carbon, and spectra in cyan indicates nitrogen, which further describes the chemical composition of silk fibroin used for electrospinning. In case of nanofibers modified with HAp NPs, Figure 9 shows the results of TEM-EDS. To get more insight about the location and chemical nature of nanofibers, areas near the site of investigation are encircled, and three fibers are coded as F1, F2, and F3. Two of them indicated as F1 and F3 appear as neat nanofibers without the presence of any extra structure (i.e., HAp), while the nanofiber which is centrally located in this figure shows poking out appearance of HAp within its alignment. Moreover, to get more clear confirmation with regard to the chemical compositions of each compound present in this selected area, Figure 10B,C,D shows the results of line mapping from the former figure (Figure 10A). In this figure, the encircled area near F1, F2, and F3 giving rise to different peaks in different colors are indicated. Briefly, main compounds have been identified as calcium (red) and phosphorous (cyan). From this figure, one can clearly reveal the presence of Ca and P that is more predominating from the central nanofiber (i.e., F2) region which further clarifies the presence of HAp NPs associated with modified nanofibers and simultaneously supports the simple TEM results (Figure 8).

Bottom Line: In this work, we had successfully used a three-way stopcock connector to mix the two different solutions, and very shortly, this solution is ejected out to form nanofibers due to electric fields.Different blend ratios consisting HAp NPs had been electrospun into nanofibers.These characterization techniques revealed that HAp NPs can be easily introduced in silk nanofibers using a stopcock connector, and this method favorably preserves the intact nature of silk fibroin and HAp NPs.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Nano-Bio Regenerative Medical Institute, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon 200-702, South Korea ; Department of Chemistry, University of Texas-Pan American, Edinburg, Texas 78539, USA.

ABSTRACT
Electrospinning technique is commonly used to produce micro- and/or nanofibers, which utilizes electrical forces to produce polymeric fibers with diameters ranging from several micrometers down to few nanometers. Desirably, electrospun materials provide highly porous structure and appropriate pore size for initial cell attachment and proliferation and thereby enable the exchange of nutrients. Composite nanofibers consisting of silk and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HAp) (NPs) had been considered as an excellent choice due to their efficient biocompatibility and bone-mimicking properties. To prepare these nanofiber composites, it requires the use of acidic solutions which have serious consequences on the nature of both silk and HAp NPs. It is ideal to create these nanofibers using aqueous solutions in which the physicochemical nature of both materials can be retained. However, to create those nanofibers is often difficult to obtain because of the fact that aqueous solutions of silk and HAp NPs can precipitate before they can be ejected into fibers during the electrospinning process. In this work, we had successfully used a three-way stopcock connector to mix the two different solutions, and very shortly, this solution is ejected out to form nanofibers due to electric fields. Different blend ratios consisting HAp NPs had been electrospun into nanofibers. The physicochemical aspects of fabricated nanofiber had been characterized by different state of techniques like that of FE-SEM, EDS, TEM, TEM-EDS, TGA, FT-IR, and XRD. These characterization techniques revealed that HAp NPs can be easily introduced in silk nanofibers using a stopcock connector, and this method favorably preserves the intact nature of silk fibroin and HAp NPs. Moreover, nanofibers obtained by this strategy were tested for cell toxicity and cell attachment studies using NIH 3 T3 fibroblasts which indicated non-toxic behavior and good attachment of cells upon incubation in the presence of nanofibers.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus