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Mosquitoes established in Lhasa city, Tibet, China.

Liu Q, Liu X - Parasit Vectors (2013)

Bottom Line: Of 105 mosquitoes identified by multiplex PCR, 36 were pure mosquitoes (34.29%) while 69 were hybrids (65.71%).The local Culex pipiens complex comprises the subspecies Cx. pipiens pipiens, Cx. pipiens pallens, Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus and its hybrids.Mosquitoes in the Cx. pipiens complex, known to be, potentially, vectors of periodic filariasis and encephalitis, are now present from one season to the next, and appear to be established in Lhasa City, TAR.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: In 2009, residents of Lhasa city, Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR), China reported large numbers of mosquitoes and bites from these insects. It is unclear whether this was a new phenomenon, which species were involved, and whether these mosquitoes had established themselves in the local circumstances.

Methods: The present study was undertaken in six urban sites of Chengguan district Lhasa city, Tibet. Adult mosquitoes were collected by bed net trap, labor hour method and light trap in August 2009 and August 2012. The trapped adult mosquitoes were initially counted and identified according to morphological criteria, and a proportion of mosquitoes were examined more closely using a multiplex PCR assay.

Results: 907 mosquitoes of the Culex pipiens complex were collected in this study. Among them, 595 were females and 312 were males. There was no significant difference in mosquito density monitored by bed net trap and labor hour method in 2009 and 2012. Of 105 mosquitoes identified by multiplex PCR, 36 were pure mosquitoes (34.29%) while 69 were hybrids (65.71%). The same subspecies of Culex pipiens complex were observed by bed net trap, labor hour method and light trap in 2009 and 2012.

Conclusion: The local Culex pipiens complex comprises the subspecies Cx. pipiens pipiens, Cx. pipiens pallens, Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus and its hybrids. Mosquitoes in the Cx. pipiens complex, known to be, potentially, vectors of periodic filariasis and encephalitis, are now present from one season to the next, and appear to be established in Lhasa City, TAR.

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Ethidium bromide-stained agarose gel showing multiplex PCR assay for molecular identification. M: Maker; Positive control products from Cx. pipiens complex are shown in lanes1-7. Lane 1 (Cx. pipiens pipiens from Urumchi, Xinjiang, 610 bp); Lane 2 (Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus from Dali, Yunnan, 274 bp); Lane 3 (Cx. pipiens pallens from Beijing, 478 bp); Lane 4 (Cx. pipiens pipiens &Cx. pipiens pallens, 1 ul ofeach DNA, 610 bp &478 bp); Lane 5 (Cx. pipiens pipiens &Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus,1 ul of each DNA, 610 bp&274 bp); Lane 6 (Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus&Cx. pipiens pallens, 1 ul of each DNA,274 bp&610 bp); Lane 7 (Cx. pipiens pipiens&Cx. pipiens pallens&Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus, 0.67 ul of each DNA, 610 bp&274 bp&478 bp), respectively. Mosquitoes from Lhasa city and other provinces are shown in lanes 8–22, respectively. Lane 23, negative control. Outside lanes are 100 bp DNA ladders. bp = basepaires.
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Figure 2: Ethidium bromide-stained agarose gel showing multiplex PCR assay for molecular identification. M: Maker; Positive control products from Cx. pipiens complex are shown in lanes1-7. Lane 1 (Cx. pipiens pipiens from Urumchi, Xinjiang, 610 bp); Lane 2 (Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus from Dali, Yunnan, 274 bp); Lane 3 (Cx. pipiens pallens from Beijing, 478 bp); Lane 4 (Cx. pipiens pipiens &Cx. pipiens pallens, 1 ul ofeach DNA, 610 bp &478 bp); Lane 5 (Cx. pipiens pipiens &Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus,1 ul of each DNA, 610 bp&274 bp); Lane 6 (Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus&Cx. pipiens pallens, 1 ul of each DNA,274 bp&610 bp); Lane 7 (Cx. pipiens pipiens&Cx. pipiens pallens&Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus, 0.67 ul of each DNA, 610 bp&274 bp&478 bp), respectively. Mosquitoes from Lhasa city and other provinces are shown in lanes 8–22, respectively. Lane 23, negative control. Outside lanes are 100 bp DNA ladders. bp = basepaires.

Mentions: In this study, 105 mosquitoes from Lhasa city and another 17 mosquitoes used as positive controls from other provinces (positive control: Cx. pipiens pipiens from Urumchi, Xinjiang, 610 bp;Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus from Dali, Yunnan, 274 bp; Cx. pipiens pallens from Beijing, 478 bp) were examined using the multiplex PCR assay developed by Smith, J. L. & Fonseca, D. M [12]. The results revealed that the size of the amplified product was 274 bp for Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus, 478 bp for Cx. pipiens pallens and 610 bp for Cx. pipiens pipiens. Primers were successfully designed for the identification of these mosquitoes (Figure 2).


Mosquitoes established in Lhasa city, Tibet, China.

Liu Q, Liu X - Parasit Vectors (2013)

Ethidium bromide-stained agarose gel showing multiplex PCR assay for molecular identification. M: Maker; Positive control products from Cx. pipiens complex are shown in lanes1-7. Lane 1 (Cx. pipiens pipiens from Urumchi, Xinjiang, 610 bp); Lane 2 (Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus from Dali, Yunnan, 274 bp); Lane 3 (Cx. pipiens pallens from Beijing, 478 bp); Lane 4 (Cx. pipiens pipiens &Cx. pipiens pallens, 1 ul ofeach DNA, 610 bp &478 bp); Lane 5 (Cx. pipiens pipiens &Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus,1 ul of each DNA, 610 bp&274 bp); Lane 6 (Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus&Cx. pipiens pallens, 1 ul of each DNA,274 bp&610 bp); Lane 7 (Cx. pipiens pipiens&Cx. pipiens pallens&Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus, 0.67 ul of each DNA, 610 bp&274 bp&478 bp), respectively. Mosquitoes from Lhasa city and other provinces are shown in lanes 8–22, respectively. Lane 23, negative control. Outside lanes are 100 bp DNA ladders. bp = basepaires.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3750258&req=5

Figure 2: Ethidium bromide-stained agarose gel showing multiplex PCR assay for molecular identification. M: Maker; Positive control products from Cx. pipiens complex are shown in lanes1-7. Lane 1 (Cx. pipiens pipiens from Urumchi, Xinjiang, 610 bp); Lane 2 (Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus from Dali, Yunnan, 274 bp); Lane 3 (Cx. pipiens pallens from Beijing, 478 bp); Lane 4 (Cx. pipiens pipiens &Cx. pipiens pallens, 1 ul ofeach DNA, 610 bp &478 bp); Lane 5 (Cx. pipiens pipiens &Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus,1 ul of each DNA, 610 bp&274 bp); Lane 6 (Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus&Cx. pipiens pallens, 1 ul of each DNA,274 bp&610 bp); Lane 7 (Cx. pipiens pipiens&Cx. pipiens pallens&Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus, 0.67 ul of each DNA, 610 bp&274 bp&478 bp), respectively. Mosquitoes from Lhasa city and other provinces are shown in lanes 8–22, respectively. Lane 23, negative control. Outside lanes are 100 bp DNA ladders. bp = basepaires.
Mentions: In this study, 105 mosquitoes from Lhasa city and another 17 mosquitoes used as positive controls from other provinces (positive control: Cx. pipiens pipiens from Urumchi, Xinjiang, 610 bp;Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus from Dali, Yunnan, 274 bp; Cx. pipiens pallens from Beijing, 478 bp) were examined using the multiplex PCR assay developed by Smith, J. L. & Fonseca, D. M [12]. The results revealed that the size of the amplified product was 274 bp for Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus, 478 bp for Cx. pipiens pallens and 610 bp for Cx. pipiens pipiens. Primers were successfully designed for the identification of these mosquitoes (Figure 2).

Bottom Line: Of 105 mosquitoes identified by multiplex PCR, 36 were pure mosquitoes (34.29%) while 69 were hybrids (65.71%).The local Culex pipiens complex comprises the subspecies Cx. pipiens pipiens, Cx. pipiens pallens, Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus and its hybrids.Mosquitoes in the Cx. pipiens complex, known to be, potentially, vectors of periodic filariasis and encephalitis, are now present from one season to the next, and appear to be established in Lhasa City, TAR.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: In 2009, residents of Lhasa city, Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR), China reported large numbers of mosquitoes and bites from these insects. It is unclear whether this was a new phenomenon, which species were involved, and whether these mosquitoes had established themselves in the local circumstances.

Methods: The present study was undertaken in six urban sites of Chengguan district Lhasa city, Tibet. Adult mosquitoes were collected by bed net trap, labor hour method and light trap in August 2009 and August 2012. The trapped adult mosquitoes were initially counted and identified according to morphological criteria, and a proportion of mosquitoes were examined more closely using a multiplex PCR assay.

Results: 907 mosquitoes of the Culex pipiens complex were collected in this study. Among them, 595 were females and 312 were males. There was no significant difference in mosquito density monitored by bed net trap and labor hour method in 2009 and 2012. Of 105 mosquitoes identified by multiplex PCR, 36 were pure mosquitoes (34.29%) while 69 were hybrids (65.71%). The same subspecies of Culex pipiens complex were observed by bed net trap, labor hour method and light trap in 2009 and 2012.

Conclusion: The local Culex pipiens complex comprises the subspecies Cx. pipiens pipiens, Cx. pipiens pallens, Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus and its hybrids. Mosquitoes in the Cx. pipiens complex, known to be, potentially, vectors of periodic filariasis and encephalitis, are now present from one season to the next, and appear to be established in Lhasa City, TAR.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus