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German translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the whiplash disability questionnaire.

Schuster C, McCaskey M, Ettlin T - Health Qual Life Outcomes (2013)

Bottom Line: In a consensus conference with all translators and health care professionals, who were experts in the treatment of patients with a whiplash associated disorder (WAD), formulations were refined.Internal consistency was confirmed with Cronbachs's α = 0.89.Concurrent validity showed a highly significant correlation with subscale pain and disability (NASS) at r = 0.74 and subscale pain (SF-36) at r = 0.71.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Research Department Reha Rheinfelden, Salinenstrasse 98, 4310 Rheinfelden, Switzerland. c.schuster@reha-rhf.ch

ABSTRACT

Background: The Australian Whiplash Disability Questionnaire (WDQ) was cross-culturally translated, adapted, and tested for validity to be used in German-speaking patients. The self-administered questionnaire evaluates actual pain intensity, problems in personal care, role performance, sleep disturbances, tiredness, social and leisure activities, emotional and concentration impairments with 13 questions rated on an 11-point rating scale from zero to ten.

Methods: In a first part, the Australian-based WDQ was forward and backward translated. In a consensus conference with all translators and health care professionals, who were experts in the treatment of patients with a whiplash associated disorder (WAD), formulations were refined. Original authors were contacted for clarification and approval of the forward-backward translated version. The German version (WDQ-G) was evaluated for comprehensiveness and clarity in a pre-study patient survey by a random sample of German-speaking patients after WAD and four healthy twelve to thirteen year old teenagers. In a second part, the WDQ-G was evaluated in a patient validation study including patients affected by a WAD. Inpatients had to complete the WDQ-G, the North American Spine Society questionnaire (NASS cervical pain), and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) at entry in the rehabilitation centre.

Results: In the pre-study patient survey (response rate 31%) patients rated clarity for title 9.6 ± 0.9, instruction 9.3 ± 1.4 and questions 9.6 ± 0.7, and comprehensiveness for title 9.6 ± 0.7, instruction 9.3 ± 1.4 and questions 9.8 ± 0.4. Time needed to fill in was 13.7 ± 9.0 minutes. In total, 70 patients (47 females, age = 43.4 ± 12.5 years, time since injury: 1.5 ± 2.6 years) were included in the validation study. WDQ-G total score was 74.0 ± 21.3 points (range between 15 and 117 points). Time needed to fill in was 6.7 ± 3.4 minutes with data from 22 patients. Internal consistency was confirmed with Cronbachs's α = 0.89. Concurrent validity showed a highly significant correlation with subscale pain and disability (NASS) at r = 0.74 and subscale pain (SF-36) at r = 0.71.

Conclusions: The officially translated and adapted WDQ-G can be used in German-speaking patients affected by a WAD to evaluate patients' impairments in different domains. The WDQ-G is a self-administered outcome measure showing a high internal consistency and good concurrent validity.

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Distribution of WDQ-G total scores. Legend: N = sample size, WDQ-G = German version of the Whiplash Disability Questionnaire, * = three of 70 patients did not respond to all items of the questionnaire.
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Figure 1: Distribution of WDQ-G total scores. Legend: N = sample size, WDQ-G = German version of the Whiplash Disability Questionnaire, * = three of 70 patients did not respond to all items of the questionnaire.

Mentions: Figure 1 presents the number of responses for each WDQ-G question of the pre-study survey sample and the validation study sample. The WDQ-G mean total score of the pre-study survey sample was 69.4 (± 24.0) for 16 patients and 74.0 (± 21.3) for the inpatient validation study sample for 67 patients, respectively. Time needed to fill in the WDQ-G was 13.7 (± 9.0) minutes for the pre-study survey sample with data from 14 patients and 6.7 (± 3.4) minutes for the validation study sample with data from 22 patients only. Mean values for each of the 13 WDQ-G questions are presented in Table 2.


German translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the whiplash disability questionnaire.

Schuster C, McCaskey M, Ettlin T - Health Qual Life Outcomes (2013)

Distribution of WDQ-G total scores. Legend: N = sample size, WDQ-G = German version of the Whiplash Disability Questionnaire, * = three of 70 patients did not respond to all items of the questionnaire.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3735040&req=5

Figure 1: Distribution of WDQ-G total scores. Legend: N = sample size, WDQ-G = German version of the Whiplash Disability Questionnaire, * = three of 70 patients did not respond to all items of the questionnaire.
Mentions: Figure 1 presents the number of responses for each WDQ-G question of the pre-study survey sample and the validation study sample. The WDQ-G mean total score of the pre-study survey sample was 69.4 (± 24.0) for 16 patients and 74.0 (± 21.3) for the inpatient validation study sample for 67 patients, respectively. Time needed to fill in the WDQ-G was 13.7 (± 9.0) minutes for the pre-study survey sample with data from 14 patients and 6.7 (± 3.4) minutes for the validation study sample with data from 22 patients only. Mean values for each of the 13 WDQ-G questions are presented in Table 2.

Bottom Line: In a consensus conference with all translators and health care professionals, who were experts in the treatment of patients with a whiplash associated disorder (WAD), formulations were refined.Internal consistency was confirmed with Cronbachs's α = 0.89.Concurrent validity showed a highly significant correlation with subscale pain and disability (NASS) at r = 0.74 and subscale pain (SF-36) at r = 0.71.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Research Department Reha Rheinfelden, Salinenstrasse 98, 4310 Rheinfelden, Switzerland. c.schuster@reha-rhf.ch

ABSTRACT

Background: The Australian Whiplash Disability Questionnaire (WDQ) was cross-culturally translated, adapted, and tested for validity to be used in German-speaking patients. The self-administered questionnaire evaluates actual pain intensity, problems in personal care, role performance, sleep disturbances, tiredness, social and leisure activities, emotional and concentration impairments with 13 questions rated on an 11-point rating scale from zero to ten.

Methods: In a first part, the Australian-based WDQ was forward and backward translated. In a consensus conference with all translators and health care professionals, who were experts in the treatment of patients with a whiplash associated disorder (WAD), formulations were refined. Original authors were contacted for clarification and approval of the forward-backward translated version. The German version (WDQ-G) was evaluated for comprehensiveness and clarity in a pre-study patient survey by a random sample of German-speaking patients after WAD and four healthy twelve to thirteen year old teenagers. In a second part, the WDQ-G was evaluated in a patient validation study including patients affected by a WAD. Inpatients had to complete the WDQ-G, the North American Spine Society questionnaire (NASS cervical pain), and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) at entry in the rehabilitation centre.

Results: In the pre-study patient survey (response rate 31%) patients rated clarity for title 9.6 ± 0.9, instruction 9.3 ± 1.4 and questions 9.6 ± 0.7, and comprehensiveness for title 9.6 ± 0.7, instruction 9.3 ± 1.4 and questions 9.8 ± 0.4. Time needed to fill in was 13.7 ± 9.0 minutes. In total, 70 patients (47 females, age = 43.4 ± 12.5 years, time since injury: 1.5 ± 2.6 years) were included in the validation study. WDQ-G total score was 74.0 ± 21.3 points (range between 15 and 117 points). Time needed to fill in was 6.7 ± 3.4 minutes with data from 22 patients. Internal consistency was confirmed with Cronbachs's α = 0.89. Concurrent validity showed a highly significant correlation with subscale pain and disability (NASS) at r = 0.74 and subscale pain (SF-36) at r = 0.71.

Conclusions: The officially translated and adapted WDQ-G can be used in German-speaking patients affected by a WAD to evaluate patients' impairments in different domains. The WDQ-G is a self-administered outcome measure showing a high internal consistency and good concurrent validity.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus