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Newly standing infants increase postural stability when performing a supra-postural task.

Claxton LJ, Haddad JM, Ponto K, Ryu JH, Newcomer SC - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: Infants' balance was measured while standing and while standing and holding a visually attractive toy.When holding the toy, infants stood for a longer period of time, exhibited less body sway, and more mature postural dynamics.These results demonstrate that even with limited standing experience, infants can stabilize posture to facilitate performance of a concurrent task.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Health and Kinesiology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, United States of America. ljclaxton@purdue.edu

ABSTRACT
Independent stance is one of the most difficult motor milestones to achieve. Newly standing infants exhibit exaggerated body movements and can only stand for a brief amount of time. Given the difficult nature of bipedal stance, these unstable characteristics are slow to improve. However, we demonstrate that infants can increase their stability when engaged in a standing goal-directed task. Infants' balance was measured while standing and while standing and holding a visually attractive toy. When holding the toy, infants stood for a longer period of time, exhibited less body sway, and more mature postural dynamics. These results demonstrate that even with limited standing experience, infants can stabilize posture to facilitate performance of a concurrent task.

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Box and whisker plot for the a) average center of pressure velocity and b) average standing time.The box encompasses the upper and lower quartile values of the data, and the whiskers show the range. The line in the center of the box is the median. The individual subject data is represented as circles superimposed on the plots. In the cases where individual subjects had near identical values, one circle is translated to the right for readability.
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pone-0071288-g002: Box and whisker plot for the a) average center of pressure velocity and b) average standing time.The box encompasses the upper and lower quartile values of the data, and the whiskers show the range. The line in the center of the box is the median. The individual subject data is represented as circles superimposed on the plots. In the cases where individual subjects had near identical values, one circle is translated to the right for readability.

Mentions: Infants stood on average, for 12.09 seconds (SE = 2.38) when holding a toy, but for only 4.71 seconds (SE = 1.17) when not holding a toy (Figure 2b); t(15) = 4.43, p<.001. Percent determinism (the outcome variable used from RQA) in the medial-lateral direction was 86.3% (SE = 1.58) in the no toy condition and 78.9% (SE = 3.37) in the toy-hold condition; t(15) = 2.324, p<.05. No significant difference in percent determinism was observed in the anterior-posterior direction between the toy (83.5%, SE = 2.37) and no-toy (85.9%, SE = 1.92) conditions; t(15) = .944, p>.05. CoPSD in the medial-lateral direction was 13.68 mm (SE = 1.02) in the no toy condition and 11.36 mm (SE = 1.02) in the toy-hold condition; t(15) = 2.938, p<.01. No significant difference in CoPSD was observed in the anterior-posterior direction between the toy (11.97 mm, SE = .768) and no-toy condition (12.08 mm, SE = .711); t(15) = .112, p>.05. The average CoP velocity was also lower when infants held a toy (89 mm/s, SE = 6) as compared to when not holding a toy (102 mm/s, SE = 8; Figure 2a); t(15) = 2.07, p<.05.


Newly standing infants increase postural stability when performing a supra-postural task.

Claxton LJ, Haddad JM, Ponto K, Ryu JH, Newcomer SC - PLoS ONE (2013)

Box and whisker plot for the a) average center of pressure velocity and b) average standing time.The box encompasses the upper and lower quartile values of the data, and the whiskers show the range. The line in the center of the box is the median. The individual subject data is represented as circles superimposed on the plots. In the cases where individual subjects had near identical values, one circle is translated to the right for readability.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3733978&req=5

pone-0071288-g002: Box and whisker plot for the a) average center of pressure velocity and b) average standing time.The box encompasses the upper and lower quartile values of the data, and the whiskers show the range. The line in the center of the box is the median. The individual subject data is represented as circles superimposed on the plots. In the cases where individual subjects had near identical values, one circle is translated to the right for readability.
Mentions: Infants stood on average, for 12.09 seconds (SE = 2.38) when holding a toy, but for only 4.71 seconds (SE = 1.17) when not holding a toy (Figure 2b); t(15) = 4.43, p<.001. Percent determinism (the outcome variable used from RQA) in the medial-lateral direction was 86.3% (SE = 1.58) in the no toy condition and 78.9% (SE = 3.37) in the toy-hold condition; t(15) = 2.324, p<.05. No significant difference in percent determinism was observed in the anterior-posterior direction between the toy (83.5%, SE = 2.37) and no-toy (85.9%, SE = 1.92) conditions; t(15) = .944, p>.05. CoPSD in the medial-lateral direction was 13.68 mm (SE = 1.02) in the no toy condition and 11.36 mm (SE = 1.02) in the toy-hold condition; t(15) = 2.938, p<.01. No significant difference in CoPSD was observed in the anterior-posterior direction between the toy (11.97 mm, SE = .768) and no-toy condition (12.08 mm, SE = .711); t(15) = .112, p>.05. The average CoP velocity was also lower when infants held a toy (89 mm/s, SE = 6) as compared to when not holding a toy (102 mm/s, SE = 8; Figure 2a); t(15) = 2.07, p<.05.

Bottom Line: Infants' balance was measured while standing and while standing and holding a visually attractive toy.When holding the toy, infants stood for a longer period of time, exhibited less body sway, and more mature postural dynamics.These results demonstrate that even with limited standing experience, infants can stabilize posture to facilitate performance of a concurrent task.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Health and Kinesiology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, United States of America. ljclaxton@purdue.edu

ABSTRACT
Independent stance is one of the most difficult motor milestones to achieve. Newly standing infants exhibit exaggerated body movements and can only stand for a brief amount of time. Given the difficult nature of bipedal stance, these unstable characteristics are slow to improve. However, we demonstrate that infants can increase their stability when engaged in a standing goal-directed task. Infants' balance was measured while standing and while standing and holding a visually attractive toy. When holding the toy, infants stood for a longer period of time, exhibited less body sway, and more mature postural dynamics. These results demonstrate that even with limited standing experience, infants can stabilize posture to facilitate performance of a concurrent task.

Show MeSH