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Immunomodulatory role of Emblica officinalis in arsenic induced oxidative damage and apoptosis in thymocytes of mice.

Singh MK, Yadav SS, Gupta V, Khattri S - BMC Complement Altern Med (2013)

Bottom Line: The antioxidant enzyme assays were carried out using spectrophotometer and generation of ROS, apoptotic parameters, change in cell cycle were carried out using flow cytometer following the standard protocols.Arsenic exposure to mice caused a significant increase in the lipid peroxidation, ROS production and decreased cell viability, levels of reduced glutathione, the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, cytochrome c oxidase and mitochondrial membrane potential in the thymus as compared to controls.The results of the present study exhibits that arsenic induced oxidative stress and apoptosis significantly protected by co-treatment with amla that could be due to its strong antioxidant potential.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, King George Medical University, Lucknow, Chowk, India.

ABSTRACT

Background: Arsenic is widely distributed in the environment and has been found to be associated with the various health related problems including skin lesions, cancer, cardiovascular and immunological disorders. The fruit extract of Emblica officinalis (amla) has been shown to have anti-oxidative and immunomodulatory properties. In view of increasing health risk of arsenic, the present study has been carried out to investigate the protective effect of amla against arsenic induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in thymocytes of mice.

Methods: Mice were exposed to arsenic (sodium arsenite 3 mg/kg body weight p.o.) or amla (500 mg/kg body weight p.o.) or simultaneously with arsenic and amla for 28 days. The antioxidant enzyme assays were carried out using spectrophotometer and generation of ROS, apoptotic parameters, change in cell cycle were carried out using flow cytometer following the standard protocols.

Results: Arsenic exposure to mice caused a significant increase in the lipid peroxidation, ROS production and decreased cell viability, levels of reduced glutathione, the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, cytochrome c oxidase and mitochondrial membrane potential in the thymus as compared to controls. Increased activity of caspase-3 linked with apoptosis assessed by the cell cycle analysis and annexin V/PI binding was also observed in mice exposed to arsenic as compared to controls. Co-treatment with arsenic and amla decreased the levels of lipid peroxidation, ROS production, activity of caspase-3, apoptosis and increased cell viability, levels of antioxidant enzymes, cytochrome c oxidase and mitochondrial membrane potential as compared to mice treated with arsenic alone.

Conclusions: The results of the present study exhibits that arsenic induced oxidative stress and apoptosis significantly protected by co-treatment with amla that could be due to its strong antioxidant potential.

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DPPH free radical scavenging activity of fruit extract of Emblica officinalis. The concentration of extract above 20 μg/ml showed a saturation in the plot indicating the radical scavenging activity of more than 90%.
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Figure 1: DPPH free radical scavenging activity of fruit extract of Emblica officinalis. The concentration of extract above 20 μg/ml showed a saturation in the plot indicating the radical scavenging activity of more than 90%.

Mentions: The different concentration of ethyl acetate extract of amla (1.0, 2.5, 5 10, 20 and 40 μg/ml) in ethanol (2 ml) was used for the DPPH radical scavenging activity and results were presented in Figure 1. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of fruit extract was found to be 8.32 μg/ml and it become saturated over 20 μg/ml concentration where the activity was more than 90%. The results showed that ethyl acetate extract of amla has strong free radical scavenging activity associated with its antioxidant potential.


Immunomodulatory role of Emblica officinalis in arsenic induced oxidative damage and apoptosis in thymocytes of mice.

Singh MK, Yadav SS, Gupta V, Khattri S - BMC Complement Altern Med (2013)

DPPH free radical scavenging activity of fruit extract of Emblica officinalis. The concentration of extract above 20 μg/ml showed a saturation in the plot indicating the radical scavenging activity of more than 90%.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3733846&req=5

Figure 1: DPPH free radical scavenging activity of fruit extract of Emblica officinalis. The concentration of extract above 20 μg/ml showed a saturation in the plot indicating the radical scavenging activity of more than 90%.
Mentions: The different concentration of ethyl acetate extract of amla (1.0, 2.5, 5 10, 20 and 40 μg/ml) in ethanol (2 ml) was used for the DPPH radical scavenging activity and results were presented in Figure 1. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of fruit extract was found to be 8.32 μg/ml and it become saturated over 20 μg/ml concentration where the activity was more than 90%. The results showed that ethyl acetate extract of amla has strong free radical scavenging activity associated with its antioxidant potential.

Bottom Line: The antioxidant enzyme assays were carried out using spectrophotometer and generation of ROS, apoptotic parameters, change in cell cycle were carried out using flow cytometer following the standard protocols.Arsenic exposure to mice caused a significant increase in the lipid peroxidation, ROS production and decreased cell viability, levels of reduced glutathione, the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, cytochrome c oxidase and mitochondrial membrane potential in the thymus as compared to controls.The results of the present study exhibits that arsenic induced oxidative stress and apoptosis significantly protected by co-treatment with amla that could be due to its strong antioxidant potential.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, King George Medical University, Lucknow, Chowk, India.

ABSTRACT

Background: Arsenic is widely distributed in the environment and has been found to be associated with the various health related problems including skin lesions, cancer, cardiovascular and immunological disorders. The fruit extract of Emblica officinalis (amla) has been shown to have anti-oxidative and immunomodulatory properties. In view of increasing health risk of arsenic, the present study has been carried out to investigate the protective effect of amla against arsenic induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in thymocytes of mice.

Methods: Mice were exposed to arsenic (sodium arsenite 3 mg/kg body weight p.o.) or amla (500 mg/kg body weight p.o.) or simultaneously with arsenic and amla for 28 days. The antioxidant enzyme assays were carried out using spectrophotometer and generation of ROS, apoptotic parameters, change in cell cycle were carried out using flow cytometer following the standard protocols.

Results: Arsenic exposure to mice caused a significant increase in the lipid peroxidation, ROS production and decreased cell viability, levels of reduced glutathione, the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, cytochrome c oxidase and mitochondrial membrane potential in the thymus as compared to controls. Increased activity of caspase-3 linked with apoptosis assessed by the cell cycle analysis and annexin V/PI binding was also observed in mice exposed to arsenic as compared to controls. Co-treatment with arsenic and amla decreased the levels of lipid peroxidation, ROS production, activity of caspase-3, apoptosis and increased cell viability, levels of antioxidant enzymes, cytochrome c oxidase and mitochondrial membrane potential as compared to mice treated with arsenic alone.

Conclusions: The results of the present study exhibits that arsenic induced oxidative stress and apoptosis significantly protected by co-treatment with amla that could be due to its strong antioxidant potential.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus