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Global transcriptome analysis of orange wheat blossom midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana (Gehin) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) to identify candidate transcripts regulating diapause.

Gong ZJ, Wu YQ, Miao J, Duan Y, Jiang YL, Li T - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: The sequencing results generated 89,117 contigs, and 45,713 unigenes.The DGE profiling data provides comprehensive information at the transcriptional level that facilitates our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of various physiological aspects including development and diapause stages in OWBM.From this study it is evident that various genes coding metabolic enzymes are crucial for diapause and metamorphosis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Plant Protection, Henan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Crop Pest Control of Henan Province, Key Laboratory of Crop Integrated Pest Management of the Southern of North China, Ministry of Agriculture of the People's Republic of China, Zhengzhou, China.

ABSTRACT

Background: Many insects enter a developmental arrest (diapause) that allows them to survive harsh seasonal conditions. Despite the well-established ecological significance of diapause, the molecular basis of this crucial adaptation remains largely unresolved. Sitodiplosis mosellana (Gehin), the orange wheat blossom midge (OWBM), causes serious damage to wheat throughout the northern hemisphere, and sporadic outbreaks occur in the world. Traits related to diapause appear to be important factors contributing to their rapid spread and outbreak. To better understand the diapause mechanisms of OWBM, we sequenced the transcriptome and determined the gene expression profile of this species.

Methodology/principal findings: In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome analysis using short-read sequencing technology (Illumina) and gene expression analysis with a tag-based digital gene expression (DGE) system. The sequencing results generated 89,117 contigs, and 45,713 unigenes. These unigenes were annotated by Blastx alignment against the NCBI non-redundant (nr), Clusters of orthologous groups (COG), gene orthology (GO), and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases. 20,802 unigenes (45.5% of the total) matched with protein in the NCBI nr database. Two digital gene expression (DGE) libraries were constructed to determine differences in gene expression profiles during diapause and non-diapause developmental stages. Genes related to diapause were analyzed in detail and in addition, nine diapause-related genes were analyzed by real time PCR.

Conclusions/significance: The OWBM transcriptome greatly improves our genetic understanding and provides a platform for functional genomics research of this species. The DGE profiling data provides comprehensive information at the transcriptional level that facilitates our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of various physiological aspects including development and diapause stages in OWBM. From this study it is evident that various genes coding metabolic enzymes are crucial for diapause and metamorphosis.

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Expression profiling of the S. mosellana HSPs genes in DOL and NDOL.
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pone-0071564-g006: Expression profiling of the S. mosellana HSPs genes in DOL and NDOL.

Mentions: The up-regulation of Hsps appears to be common to diapausing dipterans. We identified 43 Hsp unigenes in the S. mosellana transcriptome. Among them, five were similar to small heat shock proteins (sHsps) and four sHsps (Unigene11947, Unigene17774, Unigene18840, Unigene19156) appeared to be complete sequences. Only eleven unigenes (Hsp1–11) with significant differences in gene expression between NDOL and DOL were identified and all were down-regulated in NDOL compared to DOL (Figure 6, Table S7 in File S1).


Global transcriptome analysis of orange wheat blossom midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana (Gehin) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) to identify candidate transcripts regulating diapause.

Gong ZJ, Wu YQ, Miao J, Duan Y, Jiang YL, Li T - PLoS ONE (2013)

Expression profiling of the S. mosellana HSPs genes in DOL and NDOL.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3733836&req=5

pone-0071564-g006: Expression profiling of the S. mosellana HSPs genes in DOL and NDOL.
Mentions: The up-regulation of Hsps appears to be common to diapausing dipterans. We identified 43 Hsp unigenes in the S. mosellana transcriptome. Among them, five were similar to small heat shock proteins (sHsps) and four sHsps (Unigene11947, Unigene17774, Unigene18840, Unigene19156) appeared to be complete sequences. Only eleven unigenes (Hsp1–11) with significant differences in gene expression between NDOL and DOL were identified and all were down-regulated in NDOL compared to DOL (Figure 6, Table S7 in File S1).

Bottom Line: The sequencing results generated 89,117 contigs, and 45,713 unigenes.The DGE profiling data provides comprehensive information at the transcriptional level that facilitates our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of various physiological aspects including development and diapause stages in OWBM.From this study it is evident that various genes coding metabolic enzymes are crucial for diapause and metamorphosis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Plant Protection, Henan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Crop Pest Control of Henan Province, Key Laboratory of Crop Integrated Pest Management of the Southern of North China, Ministry of Agriculture of the People's Republic of China, Zhengzhou, China.

ABSTRACT

Background: Many insects enter a developmental arrest (diapause) that allows them to survive harsh seasonal conditions. Despite the well-established ecological significance of diapause, the molecular basis of this crucial adaptation remains largely unresolved. Sitodiplosis mosellana (Gehin), the orange wheat blossom midge (OWBM), causes serious damage to wheat throughout the northern hemisphere, and sporadic outbreaks occur in the world. Traits related to diapause appear to be important factors contributing to their rapid spread and outbreak. To better understand the diapause mechanisms of OWBM, we sequenced the transcriptome and determined the gene expression profile of this species.

Methodology/principal findings: In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome analysis using short-read sequencing technology (Illumina) and gene expression analysis with a tag-based digital gene expression (DGE) system. The sequencing results generated 89,117 contigs, and 45,713 unigenes. These unigenes were annotated by Blastx alignment against the NCBI non-redundant (nr), Clusters of orthologous groups (COG), gene orthology (GO), and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases. 20,802 unigenes (45.5% of the total) matched with protein in the NCBI nr database. Two digital gene expression (DGE) libraries were constructed to determine differences in gene expression profiles during diapause and non-diapause developmental stages. Genes related to diapause were analyzed in detail and in addition, nine diapause-related genes were analyzed by real time PCR.

Conclusions/significance: The OWBM transcriptome greatly improves our genetic understanding and provides a platform for functional genomics research of this species. The DGE profiling data provides comprehensive information at the transcriptional level that facilitates our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of various physiological aspects including development and diapause stages in OWBM. From this study it is evident that various genes coding metabolic enzymes are crucial for diapause and metamorphosis.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus