Limits...
Germ warfare? Strategies for reducing the spread of antibiotic resistance.

Potera C - Environ. Health Perspect. (2013)

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A review in this issue of EHP examines strategies for reducing environmental pollution with antibiotics, ARBs, and ARGs from various sources, including traditional agriculture, aquaculture, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), pharmaceutical manufacturers, and hospitals. “This information needs to reach a wider audience, especially in the medical and public health fields,” says coauthor Amy Pruden, a professor of civil and environmental engineering at Virginia Tech in Blacksburg... Limiting antibiotics in animal production is the most direct way to control environmental ARB and ARGs, according to the authors... After Denmark banned antibiotics as animal growth promoters in 1998, investigators found marked reductions of antibiotic resistance... In the United States, 70% of antibiotics are given to farm animals, largely to promote growth, not treat disease... Good animal husbandry practices, such as low animal density and good nutrition, keep animals healthy and reduce the need for antibiotics... Adoption of salmon vaccines in Norway facilitated a 99% reduction in antimicrobial use between 1987 and 2007, and fish production soared from 350,000 to 850,000 metric tons during the same time... Overall, “there is a need for cheap and effective animal vaccines,” says coauthor Joakim Larsson, a professor of environmental pharmacology at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden... WWTP processes secondarily remove some ARB and ARGs, although with some treatment methods ARGs have been shown to rebound during subsequent treatment... At least 56 antibiotics from 6 drug classes have been detected in treated sewage... WWTPs hold promise as a critical point for removing ARB and ARGs by biodegradation, adsorption, chemicals, and other effective and economical modifications. “More research is needed to identify which treatments are most effective to better design WWTP operations,” says Pruden... As an example, they cite Sweden’s implementation of new environmental criteria in the procurement and reimbursement systems hospitals use to purchase medicines. “All solutions must start with changes in local practices and then be implemented at a global scale, or we will get nowhere,” says coauthor David Graham, a professor of ecosystems engineering at Newcastle University, United Kingdom... The problem of antibiotic resistance “will only be reduced if we change our behavior at all fronts,” Graham says. “Greater control of the medical and agricultural uses of antibiotics must be coupled with greater control of our wastes. ” Marilyn C.

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Bacteria acquire resistance by exchanging conjugative plasmids (circular units of DNA), by acquiring DNA released from dead cells, and by transferring resistance genes packaged in viruses.© Bryson Biomedical Illustrations, Inc.
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f1: Bacteria acquire resistance by exchanging conjugative plasmids (circular units of DNA), by acquiring DNA released from dead cells, and by transferring resistance genes packaged in viruses.© Bryson Biomedical Illustrations, Inc.


Germ warfare? Strategies for reducing the spread of antibiotic resistance.

Potera C - Environ. Health Perspect. (2013)

Bacteria acquire resistance by exchanging conjugative plasmids (circular units of DNA), by acquiring DNA released from dead cells, and by transferring resistance genes packaged in viruses.© Bryson Biomedical Illustrations, Inc.
© Copyright Policy - public-domain
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3733681&req=5

f1: Bacteria acquire resistance by exchanging conjugative plasmids (circular units of DNA), by acquiring DNA released from dead cells, and by transferring resistance genes packaged in viruses.© Bryson Biomedical Illustrations, Inc.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED EXCERPT
Please rate it.

A review in this issue of EHP examines strategies for reducing environmental pollution with antibiotics, ARBs, and ARGs from various sources, including traditional agriculture, aquaculture, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), pharmaceutical manufacturers, and hospitals. “This information needs to reach a wider audience, especially in the medical and public health fields,” says coauthor Amy Pruden, a professor of civil and environmental engineering at Virginia Tech in Blacksburg... Limiting antibiotics in animal production is the most direct way to control environmental ARB and ARGs, according to the authors... After Denmark banned antibiotics as animal growth promoters in 1998, investigators found marked reductions of antibiotic resistance... In the United States, 70% of antibiotics are given to farm animals, largely to promote growth, not treat disease... Good animal husbandry practices, such as low animal density and good nutrition, keep animals healthy and reduce the need for antibiotics... Adoption of salmon vaccines in Norway facilitated a 99% reduction in antimicrobial use between 1987 and 2007, and fish production soared from 350,000 to 850,000 metric tons during the same time... Overall, “there is a need for cheap and effective animal vaccines,” says coauthor Joakim Larsson, a professor of environmental pharmacology at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden... WWTP processes secondarily remove some ARB and ARGs, although with some treatment methods ARGs have been shown to rebound during subsequent treatment... At least 56 antibiotics from 6 drug classes have been detected in treated sewage... WWTPs hold promise as a critical point for removing ARB and ARGs by biodegradation, adsorption, chemicals, and other effective and economical modifications. “More research is needed to identify which treatments are most effective to better design WWTP operations,” says Pruden... As an example, they cite Sweden’s implementation of new environmental criteria in the procurement and reimbursement systems hospitals use to purchase medicines. “All solutions must start with changes in local practices and then be implemented at a global scale, or we will get nowhere,” says coauthor David Graham, a professor of ecosystems engineering at Newcastle University, United Kingdom... The problem of antibiotic resistance “will only be reduced if we change our behavior at all fronts,” Graham says. “Greater control of the medical and agricultural uses of antibiotics must be coupled with greater control of our wastes. ” Marilyn C.

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