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The effects of glucosinolates and their breakdown products on necrotrophic fungi.

Buxdorf K, Yaffe H, Barda O, Levy M - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: We also found that B. cinerea stimulates the accumulation of glucosinolates to a greater extent than A. brassicicola.In our work with A. brassicicola, we found that the type of glucosinolate-breakdown product is more important than the type of glucosinolate from which that product was derived, as demonstrated by the sensitivity of the Ler background and the sensitivity gained in Col-0 plants expressing epithiospecifier protein both of which accumulate simple nitrile and epithionitriles, but not isothiocyanates.Furthermore, in vivo, hydrolysis products of indole glucosinolates were found to be involved in defense against B. cinerea, but not in the host response to A. brassicicola.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel.

ABSTRACT
Glucosinolates are a diverse class of S- and N-containing secondary metabolites that play a variety of roles in plant defense. In this study, we used Arabidopsis thaliana mutants that contain different amounts of glucosinolates and glucosinolate-breakdown products to study the effects of these phytochemicals on phytopathogenic fungi. We compared the fungus Botrytis cinerea, which infects a variety of hosts, with the Brassicaceae-specific fungus Alternaria brassicicola. B. cinerea isolates showed variable composition-dependent sensitivity to glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products, while A. brassicicola was more strongly affected by aliphatic glucosinolates and isothiocyanates as decomposition products. We also found that B. cinerea stimulates the accumulation of glucosinolates to a greater extent than A. brassicicola. In our work with A. brassicicola, we found that the type of glucosinolate-breakdown product is more important than the type of glucosinolate from which that product was derived, as demonstrated by the sensitivity of the Ler background and the sensitivity gained in Col-0 plants expressing epithiospecifier protein both of which accumulate simple nitrile and epithionitriles, but not isothiocyanates. Furthermore, in vivo, hydrolysis products of indole glucosinolates were found to be involved in defense against B. cinerea, but not in the host response to A. brassicicola. We suggest that the Brassicaceae-specialist A. brassicicola has adapted to the presence of indolic glucosinolates and can cope with their hydrolysis products. In contrast, some isolates of the generalist B. cinerea are more sensitive to these phytochemicals.

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Glucosinolate accumulation in Arabidopsis after inoculation with a fungal pathogen.Col-0 Arabidopsis seedlings were inoculated with the B05.10 B. cinerea isolate or A. brassicicola and glucosinolate content was measured 72 h or 120 to 192 h post-inoculation, respectively. GS, glucosinolate. Average glucosinolate accumulation was calculated for 6 to 9 seedlings per treatment and those averages are presented together with their standard errors. Asterisks indicate statistically significant differences relative to the control at P<0.05, as indicated by t-tests.
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pone-0070771-g006: Glucosinolate accumulation in Arabidopsis after inoculation with a fungal pathogen.Col-0 Arabidopsis seedlings were inoculated with the B05.10 B. cinerea isolate or A. brassicicola and glucosinolate content was measured 72 h or 120 to 192 h post-inoculation, respectively. GS, glucosinolate. Average glucosinolate accumulation was calculated for 6 to 9 seedlings per treatment and those averages are presented together with their standard errors. Asterisks indicate statistically significant differences relative to the control at P<0.05, as indicated by t-tests.

Mentions: Although glucosinolates are preformed secondary metabolites (phytoanticipins), the amounts of these compounds can change following a variety of stimuli [60]–[62], as well as following exposure to insects and pathogens [36], [63], [64]. HPLC glucosinolate analysis was performed on Arabidopsis plants that had been inoculated with either B. cinerea or A. brassicicola. This analysis revealed that plants inoculated with the B05.10 isolate of B. cinerea accumulated two-fold more glucosinolate than uninoculated plants. On the other hand, inoculation with A. brassicicola or the grape isolate of B. cinerea did not affect glucosinolate accumulation or profile (Figure 6). Thus, it appears that the B05.10 isolate of B. cinerea stimulates glucosinolate accumulation to a greater extent than A. brassicicola.


The effects of glucosinolates and their breakdown products on necrotrophic fungi.

Buxdorf K, Yaffe H, Barda O, Levy M - PLoS ONE (2013)

Glucosinolate accumulation in Arabidopsis after inoculation with a fungal pathogen.Col-0 Arabidopsis seedlings were inoculated with the B05.10 B. cinerea isolate or A. brassicicola and glucosinolate content was measured 72 h or 120 to 192 h post-inoculation, respectively. GS, glucosinolate. Average glucosinolate accumulation was calculated for 6 to 9 seedlings per treatment and those averages are presented together with their standard errors. Asterisks indicate statistically significant differences relative to the control at P<0.05, as indicated by t-tests.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3733641&req=5

pone-0070771-g006: Glucosinolate accumulation in Arabidopsis after inoculation with a fungal pathogen.Col-0 Arabidopsis seedlings were inoculated with the B05.10 B. cinerea isolate or A. brassicicola and glucosinolate content was measured 72 h or 120 to 192 h post-inoculation, respectively. GS, glucosinolate. Average glucosinolate accumulation was calculated for 6 to 9 seedlings per treatment and those averages are presented together with their standard errors. Asterisks indicate statistically significant differences relative to the control at P<0.05, as indicated by t-tests.
Mentions: Although glucosinolates are preformed secondary metabolites (phytoanticipins), the amounts of these compounds can change following a variety of stimuli [60]–[62], as well as following exposure to insects and pathogens [36], [63], [64]. HPLC glucosinolate analysis was performed on Arabidopsis plants that had been inoculated with either B. cinerea or A. brassicicola. This analysis revealed that plants inoculated with the B05.10 isolate of B. cinerea accumulated two-fold more glucosinolate than uninoculated plants. On the other hand, inoculation with A. brassicicola or the grape isolate of B. cinerea did not affect glucosinolate accumulation or profile (Figure 6). Thus, it appears that the B05.10 isolate of B. cinerea stimulates glucosinolate accumulation to a greater extent than A. brassicicola.

Bottom Line: We also found that B. cinerea stimulates the accumulation of glucosinolates to a greater extent than A. brassicicola.In our work with A. brassicicola, we found that the type of glucosinolate-breakdown product is more important than the type of glucosinolate from which that product was derived, as demonstrated by the sensitivity of the Ler background and the sensitivity gained in Col-0 plants expressing epithiospecifier protein both of which accumulate simple nitrile and epithionitriles, but not isothiocyanates.Furthermore, in vivo, hydrolysis products of indole glucosinolates were found to be involved in defense against B. cinerea, but not in the host response to A. brassicicola.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel.

ABSTRACT
Glucosinolates are a diverse class of S- and N-containing secondary metabolites that play a variety of roles in plant defense. In this study, we used Arabidopsis thaliana mutants that contain different amounts of glucosinolates and glucosinolate-breakdown products to study the effects of these phytochemicals on phytopathogenic fungi. We compared the fungus Botrytis cinerea, which infects a variety of hosts, with the Brassicaceae-specific fungus Alternaria brassicicola. B. cinerea isolates showed variable composition-dependent sensitivity to glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products, while A. brassicicola was more strongly affected by aliphatic glucosinolates and isothiocyanates as decomposition products. We also found that B. cinerea stimulates the accumulation of glucosinolates to a greater extent than A. brassicicola. In our work with A. brassicicola, we found that the type of glucosinolate-breakdown product is more important than the type of glucosinolate from which that product was derived, as demonstrated by the sensitivity of the Ler background and the sensitivity gained in Col-0 plants expressing epithiospecifier protein both of which accumulate simple nitrile and epithionitriles, but not isothiocyanates. Furthermore, in vivo, hydrolysis products of indole glucosinolates were found to be involved in defense against B. cinerea, but not in the host response to A. brassicicola. We suggest that the Brassicaceae-specialist A. brassicicola has adapted to the presence of indolic glucosinolates and can cope with their hydrolysis products. In contrast, some isolates of the generalist B. cinerea are more sensitive to these phytochemicals.

Show MeSH