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Phospholipid metabolism in an industry microalga Chlorella sorokiniana: the impact of inoculum sizes.

Lu S, Wang J, Ma Q, Yang J, Li X, Yuan YJ - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: To discover the phospholipid molecules most related to change of inoculum sizes, Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) was employed and the results revealed that inoculum sizes significantly affected phospholipid profiling.Also we proposed that PG, PE and several PC may play an important role in inoculum-related metabolism in C. sorokiniana, which may work through thylakoid membrane and photosynthetic pathway.Thus this study would provide more potential targets for metabolic engineering to improve biofuel production and productivity in microalgae.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Systems Bioengineering, Ministry of Education and Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, PR China.

ABSTRACT
Chlorella sorokiniana is an important industry microalga potential for biofuel production. Inoculum size is one of the important factors in algal large-scale culture, and has great effects on the growth, lipid accumulation and metabolism of microalgae. As the first barrier of cell contents, membrane plays a vital role in algal inoculum-related metabolism. The knowledge of phospholipids, the main membrane component and high accumulation of phospholipids as the major content of total lipids mass in some microalgae, is necessary to understand the role of membrane in cell growth and metabolism under different inoculum density. Profiling of C. sorokiniana phospholipids with LC-MS led to the identification of 119 phospholipid species. To discover the phospholipid molecules most related to change of inoculum sizes, Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) was employed and the results revealed that inoculum sizes significantly affected phospholipid profiling. Phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidyl- ethanolamine (PE) and several phosphatidylcholine (PC) species might play an important role under our experimental conditions. Further analysis of these biomarkers indicated that cell membrane status of C. sorokiniana might play an important role in the adaption to the inoculum sizes. And the culture with inoculum size of 1 × 10(6) cells mL(-1) presented the best membrane status with the highest content of PC and PG, and the lowest content of PE. We discovered that the inoculum size of 1 × 10(6) cells mL(-1) might provide the best growth condition for C. sorokiniana. Also we proposed that PG, PE and several PC may play an important role in inoculum-related metabolism in C. sorokiniana, which may work through thylakoid membrane and photosynthetic pathway. Thus this study would provide more potential targets for metabolic engineering to improve biofuel production and productivity in microalgae.

Show MeSH
The degree of unsaturation of phospholipid in C.sorokiniana under different inoculum sizes.
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pone-0070827-g004: The degree of unsaturation of phospholipid in C.sorokiniana under different inoculum sizes.

Mentions: Interestingly, in this study levels of acyl chain unsaturation of phospholipids were in correlation with inoculum sizes, and the lowest degree of unsaturation (DU) of all detected phospholipids was observed in IN106, resulting in much lower total DU of phospholipids in IN106 than those from other cultures (Figure 4). High DU of acyl chain could increase spatial configuration of phospholipid molecules and membrane fluidity which helps microorganisms in adaptation to low environmental temperature [56]. A recent report showed that exposure to saturated fatty acids at concentrations leading to endoplasmic reticulum membrane phospholipid remodeling would inhibit oxysterol activity [57]. Lin also found DU of acyl chains in bilayer could affect the sterol partitioning between lipid domains in plasma membrane [58]. Additionally, the variation of DU of specific phospholipids was reported in lots of studies. Take PG as an example, Sakamoto has reported that DU of PG acyl chains in chloroplasts strongly correlated with the chilling sensitivity of tobacco plants [59]. Ivanov also discussed the physiological role of the decreasing of DU of PG in down-regulation of photosystem I (PSI), modulation of the capacity of PSI-dependent cyclic electron flows, and distribution of excitation light energy in tobacco plants under photoinhibitory conditions under low temperatures [60]. These previous studies revealed that DU of phospholipids closely related to the biological characteristics of the membrane. Therefore, the decrease of DU of phospholipids in IN106 in the present work suggests a possible membrane adaption to the inoculum sizes.


Phospholipid metabolism in an industry microalga Chlorella sorokiniana: the impact of inoculum sizes.

Lu S, Wang J, Ma Q, Yang J, Li X, Yuan YJ - PLoS ONE (2013)

The degree of unsaturation of phospholipid in C.sorokiniana under different inoculum sizes.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3733633&req=5

pone-0070827-g004: The degree of unsaturation of phospholipid in C.sorokiniana under different inoculum sizes.
Mentions: Interestingly, in this study levels of acyl chain unsaturation of phospholipids were in correlation with inoculum sizes, and the lowest degree of unsaturation (DU) of all detected phospholipids was observed in IN106, resulting in much lower total DU of phospholipids in IN106 than those from other cultures (Figure 4). High DU of acyl chain could increase spatial configuration of phospholipid molecules and membrane fluidity which helps microorganisms in adaptation to low environmental temperature [56]. A recent report showed that exposure to saturated fatty acids at concentrations leading to endoplasmic reticulum membrane phospholipid remodeling would inhibit oxysterol activity [57]. Lin also found DU of acyl chains in bilayer could affect the sterol partitioning between lipid domains in plasma membrane [58]. Additionally, the variation of DU of specific phospholipids was reported in lots of studies. Take PG as an example, Sakamoto has reported that DU of PG acyl chains in chloroplasts strongly correlated with the chilling sensitivity of tobacco plants [59]. Ivanov also discussed the physiological role of the decreasing of DU of PG in down-regulation of photosystem I (PSI), modulation of the capacity of PSI-dependent cyclic electron flows, and distribution of excitation light energy in tobacco plants under photoinhibitory conditions under low temperatures [60]. These previous studies revealed that DU of phospholipids closely related to the biological characteristics of the membrane. Therefore, the decrease of DU of phospholipids in IN106 in the present work suggests a possible membrane adaption to the inoculum sizes.

Bottom Line: To discover the phospholipid molecules most related to change of inoculum sizes, Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) was employed and the results revealed that inoculum sizes significantly affected phospholipid profiling.Also we proposed that PG, PE and several PC may play an important role in inoculum-related metabolism in C. sorokiniana, which may work through thylakoid membrane and photosynthetic pathway.Thus this study would provide more potential targets for metabolic engineering to improve biofuel production and productivity in microalgae.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Systems Bioengineering, Ministry of Education and Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, PR China.

ABSTRACT
Chlorella sorokiniana is an important industry microalga potential for biofuel production. Inoculum size is one of the important factors in algal large-scale culture, and has great effects on the growth, lipid accumulation and metabolism of microalgae. As the first barrier of cell contents, membrane plays a vital role in algal inoculum-related metabolism. The knowledge of phospholipids, the main membrane component and high accumulation of phospholipids as the major content of total lipids mass in some microalgae, is necessary to understand the role of membrane in cell growth and metabolism under different inoculum density. Profiling of C. sorokiniana phospholipids with LC-MS led to the identification of 119 phospholipid species. To discover the phospholipid molecules most related to change of inoculum sizes, Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) was employed and the results revealed that inoculum sizes significantly affected phospholipid profiling. Phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidyl- ethanolamine (PE) and several phosphatidylcholine (PC) species might play an important role under our experimental conditions. Further analysis of these biomarkers indicated that cell membrane status of C. sorokiniana might play an important role in the adaption to the inoculum sizes. And the culture with inoculum size of 1 × 10(6) cells mL(-1) presented the best membrane status with the highest content of PC and PG, and the lowest content of PE. We discovered that the inoculum size of 1 × 10(6) cells mL(-1) might provide the best growth condition for C. sorokiniana. Also we proposed that PG, PE and several PC may play an important role in inoculum-related metabolism in C. sorokiniana, which may work through thylakoid membrane and photosynthetic pathway. Thus this study would provide more potential targets for metabolic engineering to improve biofuel production and productivity in microalgae.

Show MeSH