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Lymphatic territories (lymphosomes) in a canine: an animal model for investigation of postoperative lymphatic alterations.

Suami H, Yamashita S, Soto-Miranda MA, Chang DW - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: Lymphatic patterns in the carcass were then compared with postoperative lymphatic patterns in the live dogs.Our canine lymphosome map allowed us to observe lymphatic collateral formations after lymph node dissection in live dogs.This canine model may help clarify our understanding of postoperative lymphatic changes in humans in future studies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Department of Plastic Surgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, United States of America. hsuami@mdanderson.org

ABSTRACT

Background: Lymph node dissection is often performed as a part of surgical treatment for breast cancer and malignant melanoma to prevent malignant cells from traveling via the lymphatic system. Currently little is known about postoperative lymphatic drainage pattern alterations. This knowledge may be useful for management of recurrent cancer and prevention of breast cancer related lymphedema. We mapped the complete superficial lymphatic system of a dog and used this canine model to perform preliminary studies of lymphatic architectural changes in postoperative condition.

Methods: Lymphatic territories (lymphosomes) were mapped with 4 female mongrel carcasses using an indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescent lymphography and a radiographic microinjection technique. Two live dogs were then subjected to unilateral lymph node dissection of lymph basins of the forelimb, and ICG lymphography and lymphangiogram were performed 6 months after the surgery to investigate lymphatic changes. Lymphatic patterns in the carcass were then compared with postoperative lymphatic patterns in the live dogs.

Results: Ten lymphosomes were identified, corresponding with ten lymphatic basins. Postoperative fluorescent lymphographic images and lymphangiograms in the live dogs revealed small caliber lymphatic network fulfilling gaps in the surgical area and collateral lymphatic vessels arising from the network connecting to lymph nodes in the contralateral and ipsilateral neck in one dog and the ipsilateral subclavicular vein in another dog.

Conclusion: Our canine lymphosome map allowed us to observe lymphatic collateral formations after lymph node dissection in live dogs. This canine model may help clarify our understanding of postoperative lymphatic changes in humans in future studies.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

A montage of indocyanine green lymphographic images of the left forelimbs of 2 live dogs 6 months after lymph node dissection (top).Bright spots were seen in the area in which the surgery took place (black arrow). Locations of lymph nodes are marked (white arrows). Lymphangiograms from the same dogs from lateral (left) and antero-posterior (right) views showing capillary-like network (black arrows) and bypassed lymph nodes (white arrows) (middle). Diagrams show changes of lymphatic pathways (bottom).
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pone-0069222-g007: A montage of indocyanine green lymphographic images of the left forelimbs of 2 live dogs 6 months after lymph node dissection (top).Bright spots were seen in the area in which the surgery took place (black arrow). Locations of lymph nodes are marked (white arrows). Lymphangiograms from the same dogs from lateral (left) and antero-posterior (right) views showing capillary-like network (black arrows) and bypassed lymph nodes (white arrows) (middle). Diagrams show changes of lymphatic pathways (bottom).

Mentions: The postoperative ICG lymphographic images showed a wide, spotty blight area where the surgery took place (Figure 7, top row, Video S1). In the first dog, two unusual lymphatic pathways were found proximal to the area in which the surgery took place. The first pathway ran toward the ventral superficial cervical lymph node, and the other pathway crossed the ventral midline and connected to the contralateral ventral superficial cervical node. In the second dog, we could not chase any lymphatic vessels from the blight area.


Lymphatic territories (lymphosomes) in a canine: an animal model for investigation of postoperative lymphatic alterations.

Suami H, Yamashita S, Soto-Miranda MA, Chang DW - PLoS ONE (2013)

A montage of indocyanine green lymphographic images of the left forelimbs of 2 live dogs 6 months after lymph node dissection (top).Bright spots were seen in the area in which the surgery took place (black arrow). Locations of lymph nodes are marked (white arrows). Lymphangiograms from the same dogs from lateral (left) and antero-posterior (right) views showing capillary-like network (black arrows) and bypassed lymph nodes (white arrows) (middle). Diagrams show changes of lymphatic pathways (bottom).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3722290&req=5

pone-0069222-g007: A montage of indocyanine green lymphographic images of the left forelimbs of 2 live dogs 6 months after lymph node dissection (top).Bright spots were seen in the area in which the surgery took place (black arrow). Locations of lymph nodes are marked (white arrows). Lymphangiograms from the same dogs from lateral (left) and antero-posterior (right) views showing capillary-like network (black arrows) and bypassed lymph nodes (white arrows) (middle). Diagrams show changes of lymphatic pathways (bottom).
Mentions: The postoperative ICG lymphographic images showed a wide, spotty blight area where the surgery took place (Figure 7, top row, Video S1). In the first dog, two unusual lymphatic pathways were found proximal to the area in which the surgery took place. The first pathway ran toward the ventral superficial cervical lymph node, and the other pathway crossed the ventral midline and connected to the contralateral ventral superficial cervical node. In the second dog, we could not chase any lymphatic vessels from the blight area.

Bottom Line: Lymphatic patterns in the carcass were then compared with postoperative lymphatic patterns in the live dogs.Our canine lymphosome map allowed us to observe lymphatic collateral formations after lymph node dissection in live dogs.This canine model may help clarify our understanding of postoperative lymphatic changes in humans in future studies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Department of Plastic Surgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, United States of America. hsuami@mdanderson.org

ABSTRACT

Background: Lymph node dissection is often performed as a part of surgical treatment for breast cancer and malignant melanoma to prevent malignant cells from traveling via the lymphatic system. Currently little is known about postoperative lymphatic drainage pattern alterations. This knowledge may be useful for management of recurrent cancer and prevention of breast cancer related lymphedema. We mapped the complete superficial lymphatic system of a dog and used this canine model to perform preliminary studies of lymphatic architectural changes in postoperative condition.

Methods: Lymphatic territories (lymphosomes) were mapped with 4 female mongrel carcasses using an indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescent lymphography and a radiographic microinjection technique. Two live dogs were then subjected to unilateral lymph node dissection of lymph basins of the forelimb, and ICG lymphography and lymphangiogram were performed 6 months after the surgery to investigate lymphatic changes. Lymphatic patterns in the carcass were then compared with postoperative lymphatic patterns in the live dogs.

Results: Ten lymphosomes were identified, corresponding with ten lymphatic basins. Postoperative fluorescent lymphographic images and lymphangiograms in the live dogs revealed small caliber lymphatic network fulfilling gaps in the surgical area and collateral lymphatic vessels arising from the network connecting to lymph nodes in the contralateral and ipsilateral neck in one dog and the ipsilateral subclavicular vein in another dog.

Conclusion: Our canine lymphosome map allowed us to observe lymphatic collateral formations after lymph node dissection in live dogs. This canine model may help clarify our understanding of postoperative lymphatic changes in humans in future studies.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus