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Lymphatic territories (lymphosomes) in a canine: an animal model for investigation of postoperative lymphatic alterations.

Suami H, Yamashita S, Soto-Miranda MA, Chang DW - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: Lymphatic patterns in the carcass were then compared with postoperative lymphatic patterns in the live dogs.Our canine lymphosome map allowed us to observe lymphatic collateral formations after lymph node dissection in live dogs.This canine model may help clarify our understanding of postoperative lymphatic changes in humans in future studies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Department of Plastic Surgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, United States of America. hsuami@mdanderson.org

ABSTRACT

Background: Lymph node dissection is often performed as a part of surgical treatment for breast cancer and malignant melanoma to prevent malignant cells from traveling via the lymphatic system. Currently little is known about postoperative lymphatic drainage pattern alterations. This knowledge may be useful for management of recurrent cancer and prevention of breast cancer related lymphedema. We mapped the complete superficial lymphatic system of a dog and used this canine model to perform preliminary studies of lymphatic architectural changes in postoperative condition.

Methods: Lymphatic territories (lymphosomes) were mapped with 4 female mongrel carcasses using an indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescent lymphography and a radiographic microinjection technique. Two live dogs were then subjected to unilateral lymph node dissection of lymph basins of the forelimb, and ICG lymphography and lymphangiogram were performed 6 months after the surgery to investigate lymphatic changes. Lymphatic patterns in the carcass were then compared with postoperative lymphatic patterns in the live dogs.

Results: Ten lymphosomes were identified, corresponding with ten lymphatic basins. Postoperative fluorescent lymphographic images and lymphangiograms in the live dogs revealed small caliber lymphatic network fulfilling gaps in the surgical area and collateral lymphatic vessels arising from the network connecting to lymph nodes in the contralateral and ipsilateral neck in one dog and the ipsilateral subclavicular vein in another dog.

Conclusion: Our canine lymphosome map allowed us to observe lymphatic collateral formations after lymph node dissection in live dogs. This canine model may help clarify our understanding of postoperative lymphatic changes in humans in future studies.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescent lymphographic image of the medial side of the left forelimb in a dog carcass (left).Tracing of the lymphatic vessels visualized using ICG lymphography (right).
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pone-0069222-g001: Indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescent lymphographic image of the medial side of the left forelimb in a dog carcass (left).Tracing of the lymphatic vessels visualized using ICG lymphography (right).

Mentions: We used an indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescent lymphography system (PDE; Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Hamamatsu, Japan) to locate lymphatic vessels in the whole-body carcass. First, 0.1 ml of ICG aqueous solution (IC-Green, 0.5 mg/ml; Akorn, Lake Forest, IL) was injected into the skin in multiple sites in the dorsal and ventral midline of the head and neck, torso, interdigital webspaces, and tail. The body was massaged gently to facilitate travel of the ICG inside lumen of the lymphatic vessel and then scanned with the ICG fluorescent lymphography system, and images were video-recorded. Finally, shiny lines visible on the monitor screen were traced on the skin with a marker (Fig. 1). These markings traced on the skin facilitated identification of the lymphatic vessels (Fig. 2).


Lymphatic territories (lymphosomes) in a canine: an animal model for investigation of postoperative lymphatic alterations.

Suami H, Yamashita S, Soto-Miranda MA, Chang DW - PLoS ONE (2013)

Indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescent lymphographic image of the medial side of the left forelimb in a dog carcass (left).Tracing of the lymphatic vessels visualized using ICG lymphography (right).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3722290&req=5

pone-0069222-g001: Indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescent lymphographic image of the medial side of the left forelimb in a dog carcass (left).Tracing of the lymphatic vessels visualized using ICG lymphography (right).
Mentions: We used an indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescent lymphography system (PDE; Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Hamamatsu, Japan) to locate lymphatic vessels in the whole-body carcass. First, 0.1 ml of ICG aqueous solution (IC-Green, 0.5 mg/ml; Akorn, Lake Forest, IL) was injected into the skin in multiple sites in the dorsal and ventral midline of the head and neck, torso, interdigital webspaces, and tail. The body was massaged gently to facilitate travel of the ICG inside lumen of the lymphatic vessel and then scanned with the ICG fluorescent lymphography system, and images were video-recorded. Finally, shiny lines visible on the monitor screen were traced on the skin with a marker (Fig. 1). These markings traced on the skin facilitated identification of the lymphatic vessels (Fig. 2).

Bottom Line: Lymphatic patterns in the carcass were then compared with postoperative lymphatic patterns in the live dogs.Our canine lymphosome map allowed us to observe lymphatic collateral formations after lymph node dissection in live dogs.This canine model may help clarify our understanding of postoperative lymphatic changes in humans in future studies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Department of Plastic Surgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, United States of America. hsuami@mdanderson.org

ABSTRACT

Background: Lymph node dissection is often performed as a part of surgical treatment for breast cancer and malignant melanoma to prevent malignant cells from traveling via the lymphatic system. Currently little is known about postoperative lymphatic drainage pattern alterations. This knowledge may be useful for management of recurrent cancer and prevention of breast cancer related lymphedema. We mapped the complete superficial lymphatic system of a dog and used this canine model to perform preliminary studies of lymphatic architectural changes in postoperative condition.

Methods: Lymphatic territories (lymphosomes) were mapped with 4 female mongrel carcasses using an indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescent lymphography and a radiographic microinjection technique. Two live dogs were then subjected to unilateral lymph node dissection of lymph basins of the forelimb, and ICG lymphography and lymphangiogram were performed 6 months after the surgery to investigate lymphatic changes. Lymphatic patterns in the carcass were then compared with postoperative lymphatic patterns in the live dogs.

Results: Ten lymphosomes were identified, corresponding with ten lymphatic basins. Postoperative fluorescent lymphographic images and lymphangiograms in the live dogs revealed small caliber lymphatic network fulfilling gaps in the surgical area and collateral lymphatic vessels arising from the network connecting to lymph nodes in the contralateral and ipsilateral neck in one dog and the ipsilateral subclavicular vein in another dog.

Conclusion: Our canine lymphosome map allowed us to observe lymphatic collateral formations after lymph node dissection in live dogs. This canine model may help clarify our understanding of postoperative lymphatic changes in humans in future studies.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus