Limits...
A Nubian complex site from central Arabia: implications for Levallois taxonomy and human dispersals during the upper Pleistocene.

Crassard R, Hilbert YH - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: Here we demonstrate how a rigorous use of technological and taxonomic analysis may enable intra-regional comparisons across the Arabian Peninsula.The discovery of Al-Kharj 22 increases the complexity of the Arabian Middle Paleolithic archaeological record and suggests new dynamics of population movements between the southern and central regions of the Peninsula.This study also addresses the dichotomy within Nubian core typology (Types 1 and 2), which was originally defined for African assemblages.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique CNRS, Maison de l'Orient et de la Méditerranée, UMR 5133 'Archéorient', Lyon, France. remy.crassard@mom.fr

ABSTRACT
Archaeological survey undertaken in central Saudi Arabia has revealed 29 surface sites attributed to the Arabian Middle Paleolithic based on the presence of Levallois blank production methods. Technological analyses on cores retrieved from Al-Kharj 22 have revealed specific reduction modalities used to produce flakes with predetermined shapes. The identified modalities, which are anchored within the greater Levallois concept of core convexity preparation and exploitation, correspond with those utilized during the Middle Stone Age Nubian Complex of northeast Africa and southern Arabia. The discovery of Nubian technology at the Al-Kharj 22 site represents the first appearance of this blank production method in central Arabia. Here we demonstrate how a rigorous use of technological and taxonomic analysis may enable intra-regional comparisons across the Arabian Peninsula. The discovery of Al-Kharj 22 increases the complexity of the Arabian Middle Paleolithic archaeological record and suggests new dynamics of population movements between the southern and central regions of the Peninsula. This study also addresses the dichotomy within Nubian core typology (Types 1 and 2), which was originally defined for African assemblages.

Show MeSH
Levallois cores from Al-Kharj 22, non-Nubian.AK 21–5: non-preferential Levallois core, recurrent centripetal, maybe a prepared Nubian core or an abandoned one (from Al-Kharj 21 site considered as a northern extension of Al-Kharj 22 site); AK 22–26: Preferential Levallois core with unidirectional convergent preparation; AK 22–51: Preferential Levallois core with centripetal preparation; AK 22–61: Recurrent centripetal non-preferential Levallois core. Drawings by G. Devilder, CNRS.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3722236&req=5

pone-0069221-g005: Levallois cores from Al-Kharj 22, non-Nubian.AK 21–5: non-preferential Levallois core, recurrent centripetal, maybe a prepared Nubian core or an abandoned one (from Al-Kharj 21 site considered as a northern extension of Al-Kharj 22 site); AK 22–26: Preferential Levallois core with unidirectional convergent preparation; AK 22–51: Preferential Levallois core with centripetal preparation; AK 22–61: Recurrent centripetal non-preferential Levallois core. Drawings by G. Devilder, CNRS.

Mentions: A total of 177 artifacts encompassing cores and blanks were collected and analyzed (Table 1). Of these, 123 are cores that have been categorized and analyzed according to the diverse technological reduction schema employed. Levallois and non-Levallois blank production have been identified at the site (Figure 5). Levallois preferential cores with centripetal preparation, Levallois preferential point producing cores, Levallois recurrent and cores generally attributed to the Levallois concept (sensu[26]) have been identified within the sample. The Nubian Levallois production component found within the Al-Kharj 22 sample will be discussed separately in the following sections.


A Nubian complex site from central Arabia: implications for Levallois taxonomy and human dispersals during the upper Pleistocene.

Crassard R, Hilbert YH - PLoS ONE (2013)

Levallois cores from Al-Kharj 22, non-Nubian.AK 21–5: non-preferential Levallois core, recurrent centripetal, maybe a prepared Nubian core or an abandoned one (from Al-Kharj 21 site considered as a northern extension of Al-Kharj 22 site); AK 22–26: Preferential Levallois core with unidirectional convergent preparation; AK 22–51: Preferential Levallois core with centripetal preparation; AK 22–61: Recurrent centripetal non-preferential Levallois core. Drawings by G. Devilder, CNRS.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3722236&req=5

pone-0069221-g005: Levallois cores from Al-Kharj 22, non-Nubian.AK 21–5: non-preferential Levallois core, recurrent centripetal, maybe a prepared Nubian core or an abandoned one (from Al-Kharj 21 site considered as a northern extension of Al-Kharj 22 site); AK 22–26: Preferential Levallois core with unidirectional convergent preparation; AK 22–51: Preferential Levallois core with centripetal preparation; AK 22–61: Recurrent centripetal non-preferential Levallois core. Drawings by G. Devilder, CNRS.
Mentions: A total of 177 artifacts encompassing cores and blanks were collected and analyzed (Table 1). Of these, 123 are cores that have been categorized and analyzed according to the diverse technological reduction schema employed. Levallois and non-Levallois blank production have been identified at the site (Figure 5). Levallois preferential cores with centripetal preparation, Levallois preferential point producing cores, Levallois recurrent and cores generally attributed to the Levallois concept (sensu[26]) have been identified within the sample. The Nubian Levallois production component found within the Al-Kharj 22 sample will be discussed separately in the following sections.

Bottom Line: Here we demonstrate how a rigorous use of technological and taxonomic analysis may enable intra-regional comparisons across the Arabian Peninsula.The discovery of Al-Kharj 22 increases the complexity of the Arabian Middle Paleolithic archaeological record and suggests new dynamics of population movements between the southern and central regions of the Peninsula.This study also addresses the dichotomy within Nubian core typology (Types 1 and 2), which was originally defined for African assemblages.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique CNRS, Maison de l'Orient et de la Méditerranée, UMR 5133 'Archéorient', Lyon, France. remy.crassard@mom.fr

ABSTRACT
Archaeological survey undertaken in central Saudi Arabia has revealed 29 surface sites attributed to the Arabian Middle Paleolithic based on the presence of Levallois blank production methods. Technological analyses on cores retrieved from Al-Kharj 22 have revealed specific reduction modalities used to produce flakes with predetermined shapes. The identified modalities, which are anchored within the greater Levallois concept of core convexity preparation and exploitation, correspond with those utilized during the Middle Stone Age Nubian Complex of northeast Africa and southern Arabia. The discovery of Nubian technology at the Al-Kharj 22 site represents the first appearance of this blank production method in central Arabia. Here we demonstrate how a rigorous use of technological and taxonomic analysis may enable intra-regional comparisons across the Arabian Peninsula. The discovery of Al-Kharj 22 increases the complexity of the Arabian Middle Paleolithic archaeological record and suggests new dynamics of population movements between the southern and central regions of the Peninsula. This study also addresses the dichotomy within Nubian core typology (Types 1 and 2), which was originally defined for African assemblages.

Show MeSH