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UVB exposure of farm animals: study on a food-based strategy to bridge the gap between current vitamin D intakes and dietary targets.

Schutkowski A, Krämer J, Kluge H, Hirche F, Krombholz A, Theumer T, Stangl GI - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: The content of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) in the egg yolk also increased in response to UVB, although less pronounced than vitamin D3.Meat revealed about 4-fold higher vitamin D3 contents in response to UVB than to dietary vitamin D3 (p<0.001).In conclusion, exposure of hens to UVB is an efficient approach to provide consumers with vitamin D3-enriched foods from animal sources.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Agricultural and Nutritional Sciences, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany.

ABSTRACT
Vitamin D deficiency is a global health problem. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of ultraviolet (UV) B radiation for improving vitamin D3 content of eggs and meat. In a two-factorial design hens that received diets with 0 (-D3) or 3,000 IU (+D3) vitamin D3/kg were non-exposed (-UVB) or exposed to UVB radiation (+UVB) for 3 h daily over 4 weeks. Data show that UVB radiation was very effective in raising the vitamin D3 content of egg yolk and meat. Egg yolk from +UVB/-D3 hens had a higher vitamin D3 content (17.5±7.2 µg/100 g dry matter (DM)) than those from the -UVB/+D3 group (5.2±2.4 µg/100 g DM, p<0.01). Vitamin D3 content in egg yolk of vitamin D3-supplemented hens could be further increased by UVB radiation (32.4±10.9 µg/100 g DM). The content of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) in the egg yolk also increased in response to UVB, although less pronounced than vitamin D3. Meat revealed about 4-fold higher vitamin D3 contents in response to UVB than to dietary vitamin D3 (p<0.001). In conclusion, exposure of hens to UVB is an efficient approach to provide consumers with vitamin D3-enriched foods from animal sources.

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Egg weight and egg shell quality in response to UVB exposure and dietary vitamin D3.Effects of UVB exposure (UVB) and dietary vitamin D3 (D3) on egg weight (A), egg shell thickness (B), and egg shell stability (C) over 4 weeks. Data in the panels represented means (n = 9). Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA with the classification factors UVB exposure, vitamin D3 in the diet, and the interaction between both factors. (A) No significant difference. (B) Effect of vitamin D3 (week 2): p<0.05, UVB × vitamin D3 (week 2): p<0.05. Effect of vitamin D3 (week 3 and 4): p<0.01, UVB × vitamin D3 (week 3 and 4): p<0.10. (C) Effect of UVB (week 2): p<0.05. Effect of UVB (week 3): p<0.10, vitamin D3 (week 3): p<0.10. Effect of UVB (week 4): p<0.01, vitamin D3 (week 4): p<0.05, UVB × vitamin D3 (week 4): p<0.05. Data were additionally analyzed by paired t-test, *significantly different from baseline.
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pone-0069418-g005: Egg weight and egg shell quality in response to UVB exposure and dietary vitamin D3.Effects of UVB exposure (UVB) and dietary vitamin D3 (D3) on egg weight (A), egg shell thickness (B), and egg shell stability (C) over 4 weeks. Data in the panels represented means (n = 9). Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA with the classification factors UVB exposure, vitamin D3 in the diet, and the interaction between both factors. (A) No significant difference. (B) Effect of vitamin D3 (week 2): p<0.05, UVB × vitamin D3 (week 2): p<0.05. Effect of vitamin D3 (week 3 and 4): p<0.01, UVB × vitamin D3 (week 3 and 4): p<0.10. (C) Effect of UVB (week 2): p<0.05. Effect of UVB (week 3): p<0.10, vitamin D3 (week 3): p<0.10. Effect of UVB (week 4): p<0.01, vitamin D3 (week 4): p<0.05, UVB × vitamin D3 (week 4): p<0.05. Data were additionally analyzed by paired t-test, *significantly different from baseline.

Mentions: Mean egg production rate (number of eggs per hen and week) was not significantly influenced by the treatment factors, although hens from the -UVB/−D3 group showed a slight drop in egg production within the last experimental week compared to the other group (-UVB/−D3 group, 6.0±1.6 eggs/week; -UVB/+D3 group, 7.0±0.0 eggs/week; +UVB/−D3 group, 6.9±0.3 eggs/week; +UVB/+D3 group, 7.0±0.0 eggs/week) (Table S1). Two-way ANOVA data show that the mean egg weights at defined times within the 4-week period of the experiment were not significantly influenced by UVB exposure and dietary vitamin D3, respectively (Figure 5A, Table S1). Data demonstrate higher egg weights at the end of the 4-week experiment compared to baseline in the groups that were UVB exposed and/or received vitamin D3 with their diets (p<0.05, paired t-test), but not in the -UVB/−D3 group (Figure 5A).


UVB exposure of farm animals: study on a food-based strategy to bridge the gap between current vitamin D intakes and dietary targets.

Schutkowski A, Krämer J, Kluge H, Hirche F, Krombholz A, Theumer T, Stangl GI - PLoS ONE (2013)

Egg weight and egg shell quality in response to UVB exposure and dietary vitamin D3.Effects of UVB exposure (UVB) and dietary vitamin D3 (D3) on egg weight (A), egg shell thickness (B), and egg shell stability (C) over 4 weeks. Data in the panels represented means (n = 9). Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA with the classification factors UVB exposure, vitamin D3 in the diet, and the interaction between both factors. (A) No significant difference. (B) Effect of vitamin D3 (week 2): p<0.05, UVB × vitamin D3 (week 2): p<0.05. Effect of vitamin D3 (week 3 and 4): p<0.01, UVB × vitamin D3 (week 3 and 4): p<0.10. (C) Effect of UVB (week 2): p<0.05. Effect of UVB (week 3): p<0.10, vitamin D3 (week 3): p<0.10. Effect of UVB (week 4): p<0.01, vitamin D3 (week 4): p<0.05, UVB × vitamin D3 (week 4): p<0.05. Data were additionally analyzed by paired t-test, *significantly different from baseline.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3722170&req=5

pone-0069418-g005: Egg weight and egg shell quality in response to UVB exposure and dietary vitamin D3.Effects of UVB exposure (UVB) and dietary vitamin D3 (D3) on egg weight (A), egg shell thickness (B), and egg shell stability (C) over 4 weeks. Data in the panels represented means (n = 9). Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA with the classification factors UVB exposure, vitamin D3 in the diet, and the interaction between both factors. (A) No significant difference. (B) Effect of vitamin D3 (week 2): p<0.05, UVB × vitamin D3 (week 2): p<0.05. Effect of vitamin D3 (week 3 and 4): p<0.01, UVB × vitamin D3 (week 3 and 4): p<0.10. (C) Effect of UVB (week 2): p<0.05. Effect of UVB (week 3): p<0.10, vitamin D3 (week 3): p<0.10. Effect of UVB (week 4): p<0.01, vitamin D3 (week 4): p<0.05, UVB × vitamin D3 (week 4): p<0.05. Data were additionally analyzed by paired t-test, *significantly different from baseline.
Mentions: Mean egg production rate (number of eggs per hen and week) was not significantly influenced by the treatment factors, although hens from the -UVB/−D3 group showed a slight drop in egg production within the last experimental week compared to the other group (-UVB/−D3 group, 6.0±1.6 eggs/week; -UVB/+D3 group, 7.0±0.0 eggs/week; +UVB/−D3 group, 6.9±0.3 eggs/week; +UVB/+D3 group, 7.0±0.0 eggs/week) (Table S1). Two-way ANOVA data show that the mean egg weights at defined times within the 4-week period of the experiment were not significantly influenced by UVB exposure and dietary vitamin D3, respectively (Figure 5A, Table S1). Data demonstrate higher egg weights at the end of the 4-week experiment compared to baseline in the groups that were UVB exposed and/or received vitamin D3 with their diets (p<0.05, paired t-test), but not in the -UVB/−D3 group (Figure 5A).

Bottom Line: The content of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) in the egg yolk also increased in response to UVB, although less pronounced than vitamin D3.Meat revealed about 4-fold higher vitamin D3 contents in response to UVB than to dietary vitamin D3 (p<0.001).In conclusion, exposure of hens to UVB is an efficient approach to provide consumers with vitamin D3-enriched foods from animal sources.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Agricultural and Nutritional Sciences, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany.

ABSTRACT
Vitamin D deficiency is a global health problem. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of ultraviolet (UV) B radiation for improving vitamin D3 content of eggs and meat. In a two-factorial design hens that received diets with 0 (-D3) or 3,000 IU (+D3) vitamin D3/kg were non-exposed (-UVB) or exposed to UVB radiation (+UVB) for 3 h daily over 4 weeks. Data show that UVB radiation was very effective in raising the vitamin D3 content of egg yolk and meat. Egg yolk from +UVB/-D3 hens had a higher vitamin D3 content (17.5±7.2 µg/100 g dry matter (DM)) than those from the -UVB/+D3 group (5.2±2.4 µg/100 g DM, p<0.01). Vitamin D3 content in egg yolk of vitamin D3-supplemented hens could be further increased by UVB radiation (32.4±10.9 µg/100 g DM). The content of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) in the egg yolk also increased in response to UVB, although less pronounced than vitamin D3. Meat revealed about 4-fold higher vitamin D3 contents in response to UVB than to dietary vitamin D3 (p<0.001). In conclusion, exposure of hens to UVB is an efficient approach to provide consumers with vitamin D3-enriched foods from animal sources.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus