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UVB exposure of farm animals: study on a food-based strategy to bridge the gap between current vitamin D intakes and dietary targets.

Schutkowski A, Krämer J, Kluge H, Hirche F, Krombholz A, Theumer T, Stangl GI - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: The content of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) in the egg yolk also increased in response to UVB, although less pronounced than vitamin D3.Meat revealed about 4-fold higher vitamin D3 contents in response to UVB than to dietary vitamin D3 (p<0.001).In conclusion, exposure of hens to UVB is an efficient approach to provide consumers with vitamin D3-enriched foods from animal sources.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Agricultural and Nutritional Sciences, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany.

ABSTRACT
Vitamin D deficiency is a global health problem. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of ultraviolet (UV) B radiation for improving vitamin D3 content of eggs and meat. In a two-factorial design hens that received diets with 0 (-D3) or 3,000 IU (+D3) vitamin D3/kg were non-exposed (-UVB) or exposed to UVB radiation (+UVB) for 3 h daily over 4 weeks. Data show that UVB radiation was very effective in raising the vitamin D3 content of egg yolk and meat. Egg yolk from +UVB/-D3 hens had a higher vitamin D3 content (17.5±7.2 µg/100 g dry matter (DM)) than those from the -UVB/+D3 group (5.2±2.4 µg/100 g DM, p<0.01). Vitamin D3 content in egg yolk of vitamin D3-supplemented hens could be further increased by UVB radiation (32.4±10.9 µg/100 g DM). The content of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) in the egg yolk also increased in response to UVB, although less pronounced than vitamin D3. Meat revealed about 4-fold higher vitamin D3 contents in response to UVB than to dietary vitamin D3 (p<0.001). In conclusion, exposure of hens to UVB is an efficient approach to provide consumers with vitamin D3-enriched foods from animal sources.

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UVB exposure increases vitamin D3 content in skeletal muscle.(A) Data in the top panel represent mean ± SD (n = 9) of vitamin D3 content in fibularis longus muscle of non-treated (-UVB) or UVB-treated (+UVB) hens that were fed either a vitamin D3-deficient (-D3) or vitamin D3-adequate diet (+D3), respectively. Values below the detection limit of 0.17 µg/100g for vitamin D3 are represented by randomly assigned values (#). The detection limit is marked by a dotted line (…). UVB exposure, but not dietary vitamin D3 was capable of increasing the vitamin D3 content in muscle to values above the detection limit. (B) Data in the bottom panel represent mean ± SD (n = 9) of 25(OH)D3 content in fibularis longus muscle of non-treated (-UVB) or UVB-treated (+UVB) hens that were fed either a vitamin D3-deficient (-D3) or vitamin D3-adequate diet (+D3), respectively. Values below the detection limit of 0.1 µg/100g for 25(OH)D3 are represented by randomly assigned values (#). The detection limit is marked by a dotted line (…). Individual means of the groups were compared by post-hoc test. Asterisks within one diet group (-D3 and +D3) indicate a significant difference between -UVB and +UVB groups, *p<0.05.
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pone-0069418-g004: UVB exposure increases vitamin D3 content in skeletal muscle.(A) Data in the top panel represent mean ± SD (n = 9) of vitamin D3 content in fibularis longus muscle of non-treated (-UVB) or UVB-treated (+UVB) hens that were fed either a vitamin D3-deficient (-D3) or vitamin D3-adequate diet (+D3), respectively. Values below the detection limit of 0.17 µg/100g for vitamin D3 are represented by randomly assigned values (#). The detection limit is marked by a dotted line (…). UVB exposure, but not dietary vitamin D3 was capable of increasing the vitamin D3 content in muscle to values above the detection limit. (B) Data in the bottom panel represent mean ± SD (n = 9) of 25(OH)D3 content in fibularis longus muscle of non-treated (-UVB) or UVB-treated (+UVB) hens that were fed either a vitamin D3-deficient (-D3) or vitamin D3-adequate diet (+D3), respectively. Values below the detection limit of 0.1 µg/100g for 25(OH)D3 are represented by randomly assigned values (#). The detection limit is marked by a dotted line (…). Individual means of the groups were compared by post-hoc test. Asterisks within one diet group (-D3 and +D3) indicate a significant difference between -UVB and +UVB groups, *p<0.05.

Mentions: Irrespective of the vitamin D3 in the diet, hens non-exposed to UVB radiation had no detectable vitamin D3 contents in their fibularis longus muscles (Figure 4A). UVB irradiation increased the vitamin D3 content in the muscles of chickens to values that ranged between 0.16 and 0.96 µg/100 g. By comparison of both UVB-exposed groups, the vitamin D3 content of muscle was higher in the group that received the vitamin D3-adequate diet than in the group that was fed the vitamin D3-deficient diet (p<0.05). Figure 4B demonstrates the 25(OH)D3 content in the muscles in response to UVB radiation in hens on a vitamin D3-deficient and -adequate diet. Similar to the vitamin D3 data, hens of the -D3/−UVB group had undetectable contents of 25(OH)D3 in their muscles. Supplementation with dietary vitamin D3 and also UVB exposure slightly increased the muscle contents of 25(OH)D3, whereby the UVB-exposed groups reached higher contents in their muscles than the group fed the vitamin D3-adequate diet (p<0.05).


UVB exposure of farm animals: study on a food-based strategy to bridge the gap between current vitamin D intakes and dietary targets.

Schutkowski A, Krämer J, Kluge H, Hirche F, Krombholz A, Theumer T, Stangl GI - PLoS ONE (2013)

UVB exposure increases vitamin D3 content in skeletal muscle.(A) Data in the top panel represent mean ± SD (n = 9) of vitamin D3 content in fibularis longus muscle of non-treated (-UVB) or UVB-treated (+UVB) hens that were fed either a vitamin D3-deficient (-D3) or vitamin D3-adequate diet (+D3), respectively. Values below the detection limit of 0.17 µg/100g for vitamin D3 are represented by randomly assigned values (#). The detection limit is marked by a dotted line (…). UVB exposure, but not dietary vitamin D3 was capable of increasing the vitamin D3 content in muscle to values above the detection limit. (B) Data in the bottom panel represent mean ± SD (n = 9) of 25(OH)D3 content in fibularis longus muscle of non-treated (-UVB) or UVB-treated (+UVB) hens that were fed either a vitamin D3-deficient (-D3) or vitamin D3-adequate diet (+D3), respectively. Values below the detection limit of 0.1 µg/100g for 25(OH)D3 are represented by randomly assigned values (#). The detection limit is marked by a dotted line (…). Individual means of the groups were compared by post-hoc test. Asterisks within one diet group (-D3 and +D3) indicate a significant difference between -UVB and +UVB groups, *p<0.05.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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pone-0069418-g004: UVB exposure increases vitamin D3 content in skeletal muscle.(A) Data in the top panel represent mean ± SD (n = 9) of vitamin D3 content in fibularis longus muscle of non-treated (-UVB) or UVB-treated (+UVB) hens that were fed either a vitamin D3-deficient (-D3) or vitamin D3-adequate diet (+D3), respectively. Values below the detection limit of 0.17 µg/100g for vitamin D3 are represented by randomly assigned values (#). The detection limit is marked by a dotted line (…). UVB exposure, but not dietary vitamin D3 was capable of increasing the vitamin D3 content in muscle to values above the detection limit. (B) Data in the bottom panel represent mean ± SD (n = 9) of 25(OH)D3 content in fibularis longus muscle of non-treated (-UVB) or UVB-treated (+UVB) hens that were fed either a vitamin D3-deficient (-D3) or vitamin D3-adequate diet (+D3), respectively. Values below the detection limit of 0.1 µg/100g for 25(OH)D3 are represented by randomly assigned values (#). The detection limit is marked by a dotted line (…). Individual means of the groups were compared by post-hoc test. Asterisks within one diet group (-D3 and +D3) indicate a significant difference between -UVB and +UVB groups, *p<0.05.
Mentions: Irrespective of the vitamin D3 in the diet, hens non-exposed to UVB radiation had no detectable vitamin D3 contents in their fibularis longus muscles (Figure 4A). UVB irradiation increased the vitamin D3 content in the muscles of chickens to values that ranged between 0.16 and 0.96 µg/100 g. By comparison of both UVB-exposed groups, the vitamin D3 content of muscle was higher in the group that received the vitamin D3-adequate diet than in the group that was fed the vitamin D3-deficient diet (p<0.05). Figure 4B demonstrates the 25(OH)D3 content in the muscles in response to UVB radiation in hens on a vitamin D3-deficient and -adequate diet. Similar to the vitamin D3 data, hens of the -D3/−UVB group had undetectable contents of 25(OH)D3 in their muscles. Supplementation with dietary vitamin D3 and also UVB exposure slightly increased the muscle contents of 25(OH)D3, whereby the UVB-exposed groups reached higher contents in their muscles than the group fed the vitamin D3-adequate diet (p<0.05).

Bottom Line: The content of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) in the egg yolk also increased in response to UVB, although less pronounced than vitamin D3.Meat revealed about 4-fold higher vitamin D3 contents in response to UVB than to dietary vitamin D3 (p<0.001).In conclusion, exposure of hens to UVB is an efficient approach to provide consumers with vitamin D3-enriched foods from animal sources.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Agricultural and Nutritional Sciences, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany.

ABSTRACT
Vitamin D deficiency is a global health problem. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of ultraviolet (UV) B radiation for improving vitamin D3 content of eggs and meat. In a two-factorial design hens that received diets with 0 (-D3) or 3,000 IU (+D3) vitamin D3/kg were non-exposed (-UVB) or exposed to UVB radiation (+UVB) for 3 h daily over 4 weeks. Data show that UVB radiation was very effective in raising the vitamin D3 content of egg yolk and meat. Egg yolk from +UVB/-D3 hens had a higher vitamin D3 content (17.5±7.2 µg/100 g dry matter (DM)) than those from the -UVB/+D3 group (5.2±2.4 µg/100 g DM, p<0.01). Vitamin D3 content in egg yolk of vitamin D3-supplemented hens could be further increased by UVB radiation (32.4±10.9 µg/100 g DM). The content of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) in the egg yolk also increased in response to UVB, although less pronounced than vitamin D3. Meat revealed about 4-fold higher vitamin D3 contents in response to UVB than to dietary vitamin D3 (p<0.001). In conclusion, exposure of hens to UVB is an efficient approach to provide consumers with vitamin D3-enriched foods from animal sources.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus