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Hellebrin and its aglycone form hellebrigenin display similar in vitro growth inhibitory effects in cancer cells and binding profiles to the alpha subunits of the Na+/K+-ATPase.

Moreno Y Banuls L, Katz A, Miklos W, Cimmino A, Tal DM, Ainbinder E, Zehl M, Urban E, Evidente A, Kopp B, Berger W, Feron O, Karlish S, Kiss R - Mol. Cancer (2013)

Bottom Line: In addition, while some cardiac steroid glycosides (e.g., digoxin), but not the aglycones, display a higher binding affinity for the α2β1 and α3β1 than for the α1β1 complex, both hellebrin and its aglycone hellebrigenin display ~2-fold higher binding affinity for α1β1 than for the α2β1 and α3β1 complexes.Finally, the current study highlights a common feature for all cardiotonic steroids analyzed here, namely a dramatic reduction in the oxygen consumption rate in cardenolide- and bufadienolide-treated cells, reflecting a direct impact on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.Altogether, these data show that the binding affinity of the bufadienolides and cardenolides under study is usually higher for the α2β1 and α3β1 than for the α1β1 NaK complex, excepted for hellebrin and its aglycone form, hellebrigenin, with hellebrigenin being as potent as hellebrin in inhibiting in vitro cancer cell growth.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratoire de Toxicologie, Faculté de Pharmacie, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels 1050, Belgium.

ABSTRACT

Background: Surface-expressed Na+/K+-ATPase (NaK) has been suggested to function as a non-canonical cardiotonic steroid-binding receptor that activates multiple signaling cascades, especially in cancer cells. By contrast, the current study establishes a clear correlation between the IC50in vitro growth inhibitory concentration in human cancer cells and the Ki for the inhibition of activity of purified human α1β1 NaK.

Methods: The in vitro growth inhibitory effects of seven cardiac glycosides including five cardenolides (ouabain, digoxin, digitoxin, gitoxin, uzarigenin-rhamnoside, and their respective aglycone forms) and two bufadienolides (gamabufotalin-rhamnoside and hellebrin, and their respective aglycone forms) were determined by means of the MTT colorimetric assay and hellebrigenin-induced cytotoxic effects were visualized by means of quantitative videomicroscopy. The binding affinity of ten of the 14 compounds under study was determined with respect to human α1β1, α2β1 and α3β1 NaK complexes. Lactate releases and oxygen consumption rates were also determined in cancer cells treated with these various cardiac glycosides.

Results: Although cardiotonic steroid aglycones usually display weaker binding affinity and in vitro anticancer activity than the corresponding glycoside, the current study demonstrates that the hellebrin / hellebrigenin pair is at odds with respect to this rule. In addition, while some cardiac steroid glycosides (e.g., digoxin), but not the aglycones, display a higher binding affinity for the α2β1 and α3β1 than for the α1β1 complex, both hellebrin and its aglycone hellebrigenin display ~2-fold higher binding affinity for α1β1 than for the α2β1 and α3β1 complexes. Finally, the current study highlights a common feature for all cardiotonic steroids analyzed here, namely a dramatic reduction in the oxygen consumption rate in cardenolide- and bufadienolide-treated cells, reflecting a direct impact on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.

Conclusions: Altogether, these data show that the binding affinity of the bufadienolides and cardenolides under study is usually higher for the α2β1 and α3β1 than for the α1β1 NaK complex, excepted for hellebrin and its aglycone form, hellebrigenin, with hellebrigenin being as potent as hellebrin in inhibiting in vitro cancer cell growth.

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Inhibition of purified human α1β1 Na+/K+-ATPase by the glycoside (closed circles) and aglycone (open circles) pairs of A: hellebrin/hellebrigenin and B: ouabain/ouabaigenin. (panel B) Solid lines are the fitted curves for a one site fitted model (see Materials and Methods).The curves represent the averages of two experiments in duplicates.
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Figure 3: Inhibition of purified human α1β1 Na+/K+-ATPase by the glycoside (closed circles) and aglycone (open circles) pairs of A: hellebrin/hellebrigenin and B: ouabain/ouabaigenin. (panel B) Solid lines are the fitted curves for a one site fitted model (see Materials and Methods).The curves represent the averages of two experiments in duplicates.

Mentions: As expected from the numerous data published in the literature, most cardiotonic steroid aglycones displayed weaker in vitro growth inhibition than the corresponding glycosides (Table 1). This was observed clearly for the cardenolides (ouabain / ouabagenin and digoxin / digoxigenin) and also for the bufadienolide pair gamabufotalin-rhamnoside / gamabufotalin (mean IC50 ± SEM: 9 ± 2 versus 26 ± 4 nM, p = 0.02). However, one clear exception was noticed with hellebrin and hellebrigenin (Table 1), for which the aglycone was not less effective than the glycoside. We observed a tendency for lower values of IC50 for hellebrigenin (mean IC50 ± SEM: 16 ± 5 nM) compared to hellebrin (mean IC50 ± SEM: 28 ± 7 nM), although the difference was not statistically significant (also see the data in Table 2 and Figure 3).


Hellebrin and its aglycone form hellebrigenin display similar in vitro growth inhibitory effects in cancer cells and binding profiles to the alpha subunits of the Na+/K+-ATPase.

Moreno Y Banuls L, Katz A, Miklos W, Cimmino A, Tal DM, Ainbinder E, Zehl M, Urban E, Evidente A, Kopp B, Berger W, Feron O, Karlish S, Kiss R - Mol. Cancer (2013)

Inhibition of purified human α1β1 Na+/K+-ATPase by the glycoside (closed circles) and aglycone (open circles) pairs of A: hellebrin/hellebrigenin and B: ouabain/ouabaigenin. (panel B) Solid lines are the fitted curves for a one site fitted model (see Materials and Methods).The curves represent the averages of two experiments in duplicates.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3722118&req=5

Figure 3: Inhibition of purified human α1β1 Na+/K+-ATPase by the glycoside (closed circles) and aglycone (open circles) pairs of A: hellebrin/hellebrigenin and B: ouabain/ouabaigenin. (panel B) Solid lines are the fitted curves for a one site fitted model (see Materials and Methods).The curves represent the averages of two experiments in duplicates.
Mentions: As expected from the numerous data published in the literature, most cardiotonic steroid aglycones displayed weaker in vitro growth inhibition than the corresponding glycosides (Table 1). This was observed clearly for the cardenolides (ouabain / ouabagenin and digoxin / digoxigenin) and also for the bufadienolide pair gamabufotalin-rhamnoside / gamabufotalin (mean IC50 ± SEM: 9 ± 2 versus 26 ± 4 nM, p = 0.02). However, one clear exception was noticed with hellebrin and hellebrigenin (Table 1), for which the aglycone was not less effective than the glycoside. We observed a tendency for lower values of IC50 for hellebrigenin (mean IC50 ± SEM: 16 ± 5 nM) compared to hellebrin (mean IC50 ± SEM: 28 ± 7 nM), although the difference was not statistically significant (also see the data in Table 2 and Figure 3).

Bottom Line: In addition, while some cardiac steroid glycosides (e.g., digoxin), but not the aglycones, display a higher binding affinity for the α2β1 and α3β1 than for the α1β1 complex, both hellebrin and its aglycone hellebrigenin display ~2-fold higher binding affinity for α1β1 than for the α2β1 and α3β1 complexes.Finally, the current study highlights a common feature for all cardiotonic steroids analyzed here, namely a dramatic reduction in the oxygen consumption rate in cardenolide- and bufadienolide-treated cells, reflecting a direct impact on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.Altogether, these data show that the binding affinity of the bufadienolides and cardenolides under study is usually higher for the α2β1 and α3β1 than for the α1β1 NaK complex, excepted for hellebrin and its aglycone form, hellebrigenin, with hellebrigenin being as potent as hellebrin in inhibiting in vitro cancer cell growth.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratoire de Toxicologie, Faculté de Pharmacie, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels 1050, Belgium.

ABSTRACT

Background: Surface-expressed Na+/K+-ATPase (NaK) has been suggested to function as a non-canonical cardiotonic steroid-binding receptor that activates multiple signaling cascades, especially in cancer cells. By contrast, the current study establishes a clear correlation between the IC50in vitro growth inhibitory concentration in human cancer cells and the Ki for the inhibition of activity of purified human α1β1 NaK.

Methods: The in vitro growth inhibitory effects of seven cardiac glycosides including five cardenolides (ouabain, digoxin, digitoxin, gitoxin, uzarigenin-rhamnoside, and their respective aglycone forms) and two bufadienolides (gamabufotalin-rhamnoside and hellebrin, and their respective aglycone forms) were determined by means of the MTT colorimetric assay and hellebrigenin-induced cytotoxic effects were visualized by means of quantitative videomicroscopy. The binding affinity of ten of the 14 compounds under study was determined with respect to human α1β1, α2β1 and α3β1 NaK complexes. Lactate releases and oxygen consumption rates were also determined in cancer cells treated with these various cardiac glycosides.

Results: Although cardiotonic steroid aglycones usually display weaker binding affinity and in vitro anticancer activity than the corresponding glycoside, the current study demonstrates that the hellebrin / hellebrigenin pair is at odds with respect to this rule. In addition, while some cardiac steroid glycosides (e.g., digoxin), but not the aglycones, display a higher binding affinity for the α2β1 and α3β1 than for the α1β1 complex, both hellebrin and its aglycone hellebrigenin display ~2-fold higher binding affinity for α1β1 than for the α2β1 and α3β1 complexes. Finally, the current study highlights a common feature for all cardiotonic steroids analyzed here, namely a dramatic reduction in the oxygen consumption rate in cardenolide- and bufadienolide-treated cells, reflecting a direct impact on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.

Conclusions: Altogether, these data show that the binding affinity of the bufadienolides and cardenolides under study is usually higher for the α2β1 and α3β1 than for the α1β1 NaK complex, excepted for hellebrin and its aglycone form, hellebrigenin, with hellebrigenin being as potent as hellebrin in inhibiting in vitro cancer cell growth.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus