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FireStem2D--a two-dimensional heat transfer model for simulating tree stem injury in fires.

Chatziefstratiou EK, Bohrer G, Bova AS, Subramanian R, Frasson RP, Scherzer A, Butler BW, Dickinson MB - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: It builds on an earlier one-dimensional model (FireStem) and provides improved capabilities for predicting fire-induced mortality and injury before a fire occurs by resolving stem moisture loss, temperatures through the stem, degree of bark charring, and necrotic depth around the stem.We present the results of numerical parameterization and model evaluation experiments for FireStem2D that simulate laboratory stem-heating experiments of 52 tree sections from 25 trees.The model allows for improved understanding and prediction of the effects of wildland fire on injury and mortality of trees of different species and sizes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Geodetic Science, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America. chatziefstratiou.1@osu.edu

ABSTRACT
FireStem2D, a software tool for predicting tree stem heating and injury in forest fires, is a physically-based, two-dimensional model of stem thermodynamics that results from heating at the bark surface. It builds on an earlier one-dimensional model (FireStem) and provides improved capabilities for predicting fire-induced mortality and injury before a fire occurs by resolving stem moisture loss, temperatures through the stem, degree of bark charring, and necrotic depth around the stem. We present the results of numerical parameterization and model evaluation experiments for FireStem2D that simulate laboratory stem-heating experiments of 52 tree sections from 25 trees. We also conducted a set of virtual sensitivity analysis experiments to test the effects of unevenness of heating around the stem and with aboveground height using data from two studies: a low-intensity surface fire and a more intense crown fire. The model allows for improved understanding and prediction of the effects of wildland fire on injury and mortality of trees of different species and sizes.

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Simulated impact of height (above ground) on necrosis depth in two different virtual experiments.A. Low intensity fire: Necrotic depth in different heights: 0 m, 4 m, 8 m, 12 m, 17 m, 20 m for a P. strobus (solid markers) and a Q. prinus (open markers). The diagram also lists the time at which each necrotic depth was reached. In low intensity fires lower tree levels suffer strongest effects than stem parts higher in the crown. B. Crown Fire: Necrotic depth in different heights: 3.1 m, 6.2 m, 9.2 m, 12.3 m, 13.8 m for a P. strobus. In crown fires higher tree levels are more strongly affected than the lowers parts of the stem.
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pone-0070110-g010: Simulated impact of height (above ground) on necrosis depth in two different virtual experiments.A. Low intensity fire: Necrotic depth in different heights: 0 m, 4 m, 8 m, 12 m, 17 m, 20 m for a P. strobus (solid markers) and a Q. prinus (open markers). The diagram also lists the time at which each necrotic depth was reached. In low intensity fires lower tree levels suffer strongest effects than stem parts higher in the crown. B. Crown Fire: Necrotic depth in different heights: 3.1 m, 6.2 m, 9.2 m, 12.3 m, 13.8 m for a P. strobus. In crown fires higher tree levels are more strongly affected than the lowers parts of the stem.

Mentions: (A) Surface fire. In the case of the P. strobus, the necrotic depth was almost uniform until a height of 12 m. For the Q. prinus, the necrotic depth was deeper than P. strobus (6 vs. 5 mm, respectively). It is also noted that in both cases, tree stems reach the greatest necrotic depth in less time at a height of 4 m above the ground (Fig. 10a), at which point the fire temperature and radiative heat flux maximize.


FireStem2D--a two-dimensional heat transfer model for simulating tree stem injury in fires.

Chatziefstratiou EK, Bohrer G, Bova AS, Subramanian R, Frasson RP, Scherzer A, Butler BW, Dickinson MB - PLoS ONE (2013)

Simulated impact of height (above ground) on necrosis depth in two different virtual experiments.A. Low intensity fire: Necrotic depth in different heights: 0 m, 4 m, 8 m, 12 m, 17 m, 20 m for a P. strobus (solid markers) and a Q. prinus (open markers). The diagram also lists the time at which each necrotic depth was reached. In low intensity fires lower tree levels suffer strongest effects than stem parts higher in the crown. B. Crown Fire: Necrotic depth in different heights: 3.1 m, 6.2 m, 9.2 m, 12.3 m, 13.8 m for a P. strobus. In crown fires higher tree levels are more strongly affected than the lowers parts of the stem.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3716762&req=5

pone-0070110-g010: Simulated impact of height (above ground) on necrosis depth in two different virtual experiments.A. Low intensity fire: Necrotic depth in different heights: 0 m, 4 m, 8 m, 12 m, 17 m, 20 m for a P. strobus (solid markers) and a Q. prinus (open markers). The diagram also lists the time at which each necrotic depth was reached. In low intensity fires lower tree levels suffer strongest effects than stem parts higher in the crown. B. Crown Fire: Necrotic depth in different heights: 3.1 m, 6.2 m, 9.2 m, 12.3 m, 13.8 m for a P. strobus. In crown fires higher tree levels are more strongly affected than the lowers parts of the stem.
Mentions: (A) Surface fire. In the case of the P. strobus, the necrotic depth was almost uniform until a height of 12 m. For the Q. prinus, the necrotic depth was deeper than P. strobus (6 vs. 5 mm, respectively). It is also noted that in both cases, tree stems reach the greatest necrotic depth in less time at a height of 4 m above the ground (Fig. 10a), at which point the fire temperature and radiative heat flux maximize.

Bottom Line: It builds on an earlier one-dimensional model (FireStem) and provides improved capabilities for predicting fire-induced mortality and injury before a fire occurs by resolving stem moisture loss, temperatures through the stem, degree of bark charring, and necrotic depth around the stem.We present the results of numerical parameterization and model evaluation experiments for FireStem2D that simulate laboratory stem-heating experiments of 52 tree sections from 25 trees.The model allows for improved understanding and prediction of the effects of wildland fire on injury and mortality of trees of different species and sizes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Geodetic Science, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America. chatziefstratiou.1@osu.edu

ABSTRACT
FireStem2D, a software tool for predicting tree stem heating and injury in forest fires, is a physically-based, two-dimensional model of stem thermodynamics that results from heating at the bark surface. It builds on an earlier one-dimensional model (FireStem) and provides improved capabilities for predicting fire-induced mortality and injury before a fire occurs by resolving stem moisture loss, temperatures through the stem, degree of bark charring, and necrotic depth around the stem. We present the results of numerical parameterization and model evaluation experiments for FireStem2D that simulate laboratory stem-heating experiments of 52 tree sections from 25 trees. We also conducted a set of virtual sensitivity analysis experiments to test the effects of unevenness of heating around the stem and with aboveground height using data from two studies: a low-intensity surface fire and a more intense crown fire. The model allows for improved understanding and prediction of the effects of wildland fire on injury and mortality of trees of different species and sizes.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus