Limits...
A new approach to species delimitation in Septoria.

Verkley GJ, Quaedvlieg W, Shin HD, Crous PW - Stud. Mycol. (2013)

Bottom Line: Septoria protearum, previously only associated with Proteaceae was found to be also associated with host plants from six additional families of phanerogams and cryptogams.It is concluded that trans-family host jumping is a major force driving the evolution of Septoria and Sphaerulina.New genus - Caryophylloseptoria Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous; New species - Sphaerulina tirolensis Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous; New combinations - Caryophylloseptoria lychnidis (Desm.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Caryophylloseptoria silenes (Westend.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Caryophylloseptoria spergulae (Westend.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Sphaerulina aceris (Lib.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Sphaerulina cornicola (DC.: Fr.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Sphaerulina gei (Roberge ex Desm.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Sphaerulina hyperici (Roberge ex Desm.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Sphaerulina frondicola (Fr.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Sphaerulina socia (Pass.) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous; Epitypifications (basionyms) - Ascochyta lysimachiae Lib., Septoria astragali Roberge ex Desm., Septoria cerastii Roberge ex Desm., Septoria clematidis Roberge ex Desm., Septoria cruciatae Roberge ex Desm., Septoria spergulae Westend., Septoria epilobii Westend., Septoria galeopsidis Westend., Septoria gei Roberge ex Desm., Septoria hyperici Roberge ex Desm., Septoria rubi Westend., Septoria senecionis Westend., Septoria urticae Roberge ex Desm.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Upssalalaan 8, 3584 CT, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

ABSTRACT

Unlabelled: Septoria is a large genus of asexual morphs of Ascomycota causing leaf spot diseases of many cultivated and wild plants. Host specificity has long been a decisive criterium in species delimitation in Septoria, mainly because of the paucity of useful morphological characters and the high level of variation therein. This study aimed at improving the species delimitation of Septoria by adopting a polyphasic approach, including multilocus DNA sequencing and morphological analyses on the natural substrate and in culture. To this end 365 cultures preserved in CBS, Utrecht, The Netherlands, among which many new isolates obtained from fresh field specimens were sequenced. Herbarium material including many types was also studied. Full descriptions of the morphology in planta and in vitro are provided for 57 species. DNA sequences were generated for seven loci, viz. nuclear ITS and (partial) LSU ribosomal RNA genes, RPB2, actin, calmodulin, Btub, and EF. The robust phylogeny inferred showed that the septoria-like fungi are distributed over three main clades, establishing the genera Septoria s. str., Sphaerulina, and Caryophylloseptoria gen. nov. Nine new combinations and one species, Sphaerulina tirolensis sp. nov. were proposed. It is demonstrated that some species have wider host ranges than expected, including hosts from more than one family. Septoria protearum, previously only associated with Proteaceae was found to be also associated with host plants from six additional families of phanerogams and cryptogams. To our knowledge this is the first study to provide DNA-based evidence that multiple family-associations occur for a single species in Septoria. The distribution of host families over the phylogenetic tree showed a highly dispersed pattern for 10 host plant families, providing new insight into the evolution of these fungi. It is concluded that trans-family host jumping is a major force driving the evolution of Septoria and Sphaerulina.

Taxonomic novelties: New genus - Caryophylloseptoria Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous; New species - Sphaerulina tirolensis Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous; New combinations - Caryophylloseptoria lychnidis (Desm.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Caryophylloseptoria silenes (Westend.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Caryophylloseptoria spergulae (Westend.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Sphaerulina aceris (Lib.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Sphaerulina cornicola (DC.: Fr.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Sphaerulina gei (Roberge ex Desm.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Sphaerulina hyperici (Roberge ex Desm.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Sphaerulina frondicola (Fr.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Sphaerulina socia (Pass.) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous; Epitypifications (basionyms) - Ascochyta lysimachiae Lib., Septoria astragali Roberge ex Desm., Septoria cerastii Roberge ex Desm., Septoria clematidis Roberge ex Desm., Septoria cruciatae Roberge ex Desm., Septoria spergulae Westend., Septoria epilobii Westend., Septoria galeopsidis Westend., Septoria gei Roberge ex Desm., Septoria hyperici Roberge ex Desm., Septoria rubi Westend., Septoria senecionis Westend., Septoria urticae Roberge ex Desm.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Consensus phylogram (50 % majority rule) of 17 222 trees resulting from a Bayesian analysis of the combined seven loci sequence alignment using MrBayes v. 3.2.1. Bayesian posterior probabilities values are indicated on their respective branches and the scale bar indicates 0.2 expected changes per site. The tree was rooted to Readeriella mirabilis (Teratosphaeriaceae) (CBS 125000). The family of the host plant from which the strain was isolated is indicated for 12 most prevalently occurring host families in our dataset (colour bar according to the legend).
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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Figure 2: Consensus phylogram (50 % majority rule) of 17 222 trees resulting from a Bayesian analysis of the combined seven loci sequence alignment using MrBayes v. 3.2.1. Bayesian posterior probabilities values are indicated on their respective branches and the scale bar indicates 0.2 expected changes per site. The tree was rooted to Readeriella mirabilis (Teratosphaeriaceae) (CBS 125000). The family of the host plant from which the strain was isolated is indicated for 12 most prevalently occurring host families in our dataset (colour bar according to the legend).

Mentions: Examining the distribution of host families throughout the tree, an interesting disjunct pattern is found for the families that are represented by more than a few specimens (see legend in Fig. 2). For example, the 28 species infecting Asteraceae are found in all clades and most subclades of the tree, including Sphaerulina; nine species infecting Apiaceae are found in clade 3 and subclades 4a-d of Septoria; 10 species of Rosaceae in Septoria clades 4, 5 and Sphaerulina (clades 1 and 2); six species infecting Lamiaceae are dispersed in subclades 4b, c, and d-1.


A new approach to species delimitation in Septoria.

Verkley GJ, Quaedvlieg W, Shin HD, Crous PW - Stud. Mycol. (2013)

Consensus phylogram (50 % majority rule) of 17 222 trees resulting from a Bayesian analysis of the combined seven loci sequence alignment using MrBayes v. 3.2.1. Bayesian posterior probabilities values are indicated on their respective branches and the scale bar indicates 0.2 expected changes per site. The tree was rooted to Readeriella mirabilis (Teratosphaeriaceae) (CBS 125000). The family of the host plant from which the strain was isolated is indicated for 12 most prevalently occurring host families in our dataset (colour bar according to the legend).
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3713889&req=5

Figure 2: Consensus phylogram (50 % majority rule) of 17 222 trees resulting from a Bayesian analysis of the combined seven loci sequence alignment using MrBayes v. 3.2.1. Bayesian posterior probabilities values are indicated on their respective branches and the scale bar indicates 0.2 expected changes per site. The tree was rooted to Readeriella mirabilis (Teratosphaeriaceae) (CBS 125000). The family of the host plant from which the strain was isolated is indicated for 12 most prevalently occurring host families in our dataset (colour bar according to the legend).
Mentions: Examining the distribution of host families throughout the tree, an interesting disjunct pattern is found for the families that are represented by more than a few specimens (see legend in Fig. 2). For example, the 28 species infecting Asteraceae are found in all clades and most subclades of the tree, including Sphaerulina; nine species infecting Apiaceae are found in clade 3 and subclades 4a-d of Septoria; 10 species of Rosaceae in Septoria clades 4, 5 and Sphaerulina (clades 1 and 2); six species infecting Lamiaceae are dispersed in subclades 4b, c, and d-1.

Bottom Line: Septoria protearum, previously only associated with Proteaceae was found to be also associated with host plants from six additional families of phanerogams and cryptogams.It is concluded that trans-family host jumping is a major force driving the evolution of Septoria and Sphaerulina.New genus - Caryophylloseptoria Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous; New species - Sphaerulina tirolensis Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous; New combinations - Caryophylloseptoria lychnidis (Desm.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Caryophylloseptoria silenes (Westend.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Caryophylloseptoria spergulae (Westend.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Sphaerulina aceris (Lib.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Sphaerulina cornicola (DC.: Fr.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Sphaerulina gei (Roberge ex Desm.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Sphaerulina hyperici (Roberge ex Desm.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Sphaerulina frondicola (Fr.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Sphaerulina socia (Pass.) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous; Epitypifications (basionyms) - Ascochyta lysimachiae Lib., Septoria astragali Roberge ex Desm., Septoria cerastii Roberge ex Desm., Septoria clematidis Roberge ex Desm., Septoria cruciatae Roberge ex Desm., Septoria spergulae Westend., Septoria epilobii Westend., Septoria galeopsidis Westend., Septoria gei Roberge ex Desm., Septoria hyperici Roberge ex Desm., Septoria rubi Westend., Septoria senecionis Westend., Septoria urticae Roberge ex Desm.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Upssalalaan 8, 3584 CT, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

ABSTRACT

Unlabelled: Septoria is a large genus of asexual morphs of Ascomycota causing leaf spot diseases of many cultivated and wild plants. Host specificity has long been a decisive criterium in species delimitation in Septoria, mainly because of the paucity of useful morphological characters and the high level of variation therein. This study aimed at improving the species delimitation of Septoria by adopting a polyphasic approach, including multilocus DNA sequencing and morphological analyses on the natural substrate and in culture. To this end 365 cultures preserved in CBS, Utrecht, The Netherlands, among which many new isolates obtained from fresh field specimens were sequenced. Herbarium material including many types was also studied. Full descriptions of the morphology in planta and in vitro are provided for 57 species. DNA sequences were generated for seven loci, viz. nuclear ITS and (partial) LSU ribosomal RNA genes, RPB2, actin, calmodulin, Btub, and EF. The robust phylogeny inferred showed that the septoria-like fungi are distributed over three main clades, establishing the genera Septoria s. str., Sphaerulina, and Caryophylloseptoria gen. nov. Nine new combinations and one species, Sphaerulina tirolensis sp. nov. were proposed. It is demonstrated that some species have wider host ranges than expected, including hosts from more than one family. Septoria protearum, previously only associated with Proteaceae was found to be also associated with host plants from six additional families of phanerogams and cryptogams. To our knowledge this is the first study to provide DNA-based evidence that multiple family-associations occur for a single species in Septoria. The distribution of host families over the phylogenetic tree showed a highly dispersed pattern for 10 host plant families, providing new insight into the evolution of these fungi. It is concluded that trans-family host jumping is a major force driving the evolution of Septoria and Sphaerulina.

Taxonomic novelties: New genus - Caryophylloseptoria Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous; New species - Sphaerulina tirolensis Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous; New combinations - Caryophylloseptoria lychnidis (Desm.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Caryophylloseptoria silenes (Westend.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Caryophylloseptoria spergulae (Westend.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Sphaerulina aceris (Lib.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Sphaerulina cornicola (DC.: Fr.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Sphaerulina gei (Roberge ex Desm.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Sphaerulina hyperici (Roberge ex Desm.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Sphaerulina frondicola (Fr.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Sphaerulina socia (Pass.) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous; Epitypifications (basionyms) - Ascochyta lysimachiae Lib., Septoria astragali Roberge ex Desm., Septoria cerastii Roberge ex Desm., Septoria clematidis Roberge ex Desm., Septoria cruciatae Roberge ex Desm., Septoria spergulae Westend., Septoria epilobii Westend., Septoria galeopsidis Westend., Septoria gei Roberge ex Desm., Septoria hyperici Roberge ex Desm., Septoria rubi Westend., Septoria senecionis Westend., Septoria urticae Roberge ex Desm.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus