Limits...
Phylogenetic lineages in Pseudocercospora.

Crous PW, Braun U, Hunter GC, Wingfield MJ, Verkley GJ, Shin HD, Nakashima C, Groenewald JZ - Stud. Mycol. (2013)

Bottom Line: Braun, Pseudocercospora lonicericola (W.Yamam.) Deighton, Pseudocercospora zelkovae (Hori) X.J.Liu & Y.L.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Uppsalalaan 8, 3584 CT, Utrecht, the Netherlands ; Microbiology, Department of Biology, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht, the Netherlands ; Wageningen University and Research Centre (WUR), Laboratory of Phytopathology, Droevendaalsesteeg 1, 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT

Unlabelled: Pseudocercospora is a large cosmopolitan genus of plant pathogenic fungi that are commonly associated with leaf and fruit spots as well as blights on a wide range of plant hosts. They occur in arid as well as wet environments and in a wide range of climates including cool temperate, sub-tropical and tropical regions. Pseudocercospora is now treated as a genus in its own right, although formerly recognised as either an anamorphic state of Mycosphaerella or having mycosphaerella-like teleomorphs. The aim of this study was to sequence the partial 28S nuclear ribosomal RNA gene of a selected set of isolates to resolve phylogenetic generic limits within the Pseudocercospora complex. From these data, 14 clades are recognised, six of which cluster in Mycosphaerellaceae. Pseudocercospora s. str. represents a distinct clade, sister to Passalora eucalypti, and a clade representing the genera Scolecostigmina, Trochophora and Pallidocercospora gen. nov., taxa formerly accommodated in the Mycosphaerella heimii complex and characterised by smooth, pale brown conidia, as well as the formation of red crystals in agar media. Other clades in Mycosphaerellaceae include Sonderhenia, Microcyclosporella, and Paracercospora. Pseudocercosporella resides in a large clade along with Phloeospora, Miuraea, Cercospora and Septoria. Additional clades represent Dissoconiaceae, Teratosphaeriaceae, Cladosporiaceae, and the genera Xenostigmina, Strelitziana, Cyphellophora and Thedgonia. The genus Phaeomycocentrospora is introduced to accommodate Mycocentrospora cantuariensis, primarily distinguished from Pseudocercospora based on its hyaline hyphae, broad conidiogenous loci and hila. Host specificity was considered for 146 species of Pseudocercospora occurring on 115 host genera from 33 countries. Partial nucleotide sequence data for three gene loci, ITS, EF-1α, and ACT suggest that the majority of these species are host specific. Species identified on the basis of host, symptomatology and general morphology, within the same geographic region, frequently differed phylogenetically, indicating that the application of European and American names to Asian taxa, and vice versa, was often not warranted.

Taxonomic novelties: New genera - Pallidocercospora Crous, Phaeomycocentrospora Crous, H.D. Shin & U. Braun; New species - Cercospora eucommiae Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Microcyclospora quercina Crous & Verkley, Pseudocercospora ampelopsis Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora cercidicola Crous, U. Braun & C. Nakash., Pseudocercospora crispans G.C. Hunter & Crous, Pseudocercospora crocea Crous, U. Braun, G.C. Hunter & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora haiweiensis Crous & X. Zhou, Pseudocercospora humulicola Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora marginalis G.C. Hunter, Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora ocimi-basilici Crous, M.E. Palm & U. Braun, Pseudocercospora plectranthi G.C. Hunter, Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora proteae Crous, Pseudocercospora pseudostigmina-platani Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora pyracanthigena Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora ravenalicola G.C. Hunter & Crous, Pseudocercospora rhamnellae G.C. Hunter, H.D. Shin, U. Braun & Crous, Pseudocercospora rhododendri-indici Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora tibouchinigena Crous & U. Braun, Pseudocercospora xanthocercidis Crous, U. Braun & A. Wood, Pseudocercosporella koreana Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin; New combinations - Pallidocercospora acaciigena (Crous & M.J. Wingf.) Crous & M.J. Wingf., Pallidocercospora crystallina (Crous & M.J. Wingf.) Crous & M.J. Wingf., Pallidocercospora heimii (Crous) Crous, Pallidocercospora heimioides (Crous & M.J. Wingf.) Crous & M.J. Wingf., Pallidocercospora holualoana (Crous, Joanne E. Taylor & M.E. Palm) Crous, Pallidocercospora konae (Crous, Joanne E. Taylor & M.E. Palm) Crous, Pallidoocercospora irregulariramosa (Crous & M.J. Wingf.) Crous & M.J. Wingf., Phaeomycocentrospora cantuariensis (E.S. Salmon & Wormald) Crous, H.D. Shin & U. Braun, Pseudocercospora hakeae (U. Braun & Crous) U. Braun & Crous, Pseudocercospora leucadendri (Cooke) U. Braun & Crous, Pseudocercospora snelliana (Reichert) U. Braun, H.D. Shin, C. Nakash. & Crous, Pseudocercosporella chaenomelis (Y. Suto) C. Nakash., Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin; Typifications: Epitypifications - Pseudocercospora angolensis (T. Carvalho & O. Mendes) Crous & U. Braun, Pseudocercospora araliae (Henn.) Deighton, Pseudocercospora cercidis-chinensis H.D. Shin & U. Braun, Pseudocercospora corylopsidis (Togashi & Katsuki) C. Nakash. & Tak. Kobay., Pseudocercospora dovyalidis (Chupp & Doidge) Deighton, Pseudocercospora fukuokaensis (Chupp) X.J. Liu & Y.L. Guo, Pseudocercospora humuli (Hori) Y.L. Guo & X.J. Liu, Pseudocercospora kiggelariae (Syd.) Crous & U. Braun, Pseudocercospora lyoniae (Katsuki & Tak. Kobay.) Deighton, Pseudocercospora lythri H.D. Shin & U. Braun, Pseudocercospora sambucigena U. Braun, Crous & K. Schub., Pseudocercospora stephanandrae (Tak. Kobay. & H. Horie) C. Nakash. & Tak. Kobay., Pseudocercospora viburnigena U. Braun & Crous, Pseudocercosporella chaenomelis (Y. Suto) C. Nakash., Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Xenostigmina zilleri (A. Funk) Crous; Lectotypification - Pseudocercospora ocimicola (Petr. & Cif.) Deighton; Neotypifications - Pseudocercospora kiggelariae (Syd.) Crous & U. Braun, Pseudocercospora lonicericola (W. Yamam.) Deighton, Pseudocercospora zelkovae (Hori) X.J. Liu & Y.L. Guo.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Consensus phylogram (50 % majority rule) of 12 002 trees resulting from a Bayesian analysis of the LSU sequence alignment using MrBayes v. 3.1.2. Bayesian posterior probabilities are indicated with colour-coded branches (see legend) and the scale bar represents the expected changes per site. Important clades are indicated in coloured blocks and numbered. The tree was rooted to Saccharomyces cerevisiae (GenBank Z73326).
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Figure 4: Consensus phylogram (50 % majority rule) of 12 002 trees resulting from a Bayesian analysis of the LSU sequence alignment using MrBayes v. 3.1.2. Bayesian posterior probabilities are indicated with colour-coded branches (see legend) and the scale bar represents the expected changes per site. Important clades are indicated in coloured blocks and numbered. The tree was rooted to Saccharomyces cerevisiae (GenBank Z73326).

Mentions: Large Subunit (LSU) phylogeny: The final aligned LSU dataset contained 316 ingroup taxa with a total of 1305 characters and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (GenBank Accession: Z73326) served as the outgroup taxon. From this alignment 827 characters were used for the Bayesian analysis; the consensus trees and posterior probabilities were calculated (Fig. 4) from the 12 002 trees left after discarding those used for burn-in. The resulting LSU phylogeny resolved several clades (Clades 1-14) grouping species of Pseudocercospora and allied genera (Fig. 4). Clade 1 (Posterior Probability (PP) value of 1.0) including Cyphellophora and Strelitziana represented by one of the two basal lineages. Thedgonia ligustrina (100 %) represented the second basal clade (PP = 1.0). In the Pleosporales, Clade 3 included Xenostigmina zilleri (PP = 1.0) and Clade 4 Pseudocercospora cantuariensis (PP = 1.0), the latter being described below as Phaeomycocentrospora cantuariensis. Clade 5 contained Cladosporium species belonging to the teleomorph genus Davidiella (PP = 1.0). Clade 6 (PP = 1.0) represented species belonging to Teratosphaeria and including the recently established genus Microcyclospora. Clade 7 (PP = 1.0) accommodated species of Dissoconium. Clade 8 (PP = 1.0) including species representing Mycosphaerella, Pseudocercospora and Zasmidium, as well as the recently established genus Microcyclosporella. Clade 9 (PP = 1.0) included Pseudocercospora tibouchinigena, Pseudocercospora egenula described below as Paracercospora egenula and the Mycosphaerella ellipsoidea complex. Clade 10 (PP = 1.0) accommodated species of other genera namely Pseudocercosporella, Mycosphaerella ulmi (Phleospora), Muiraea, Cercospora and Septoria. Clade 11 (PP = 1.0) included Mycosphaerella species with Sonderhenia anamorphs. Clade 12 (PP = 1.0) is sister to Clade 11 and included species representing taxa of Mycosphaerella and their associated pseudocercospora-like anamorphs, appeared to represent a novel genus. Other genera in this clade included Scolecostigmina and Trochophora. The isolates representing Trochophora are accommodated at a basal position in this clade with no PP support. The three isolates of Scolecostigmina mangiferae resided in a well-supported sub-clade (PP = 1.0) close to isolates regarded as part of the Mycosphaerella heimii complex (P. acaciigena, M. irregulariramosa, M. colombiensis, P. thailandica, M. heimii, M. heimioides, M. konae), described below in Pallidocercospora. Clade 13 (PP = 1.0) accommodated Passalora eucalypti. The remainder of the phylogeny encompassed Clade 14 (PP = 1.0), representing Pseudocercospora s. str., and accommodated the majority of Pseudocercospora species from many different hosts. The type species of Pseudocercospora, P. vitis was included in this clade. Interestingly, P. vitis was basal in this clade with the majority of Pseudocercospora species radiating out from the basal Pseudocercospora isolates. The LSU phylogeny provided a well-supported sub-clade (PP = 1.0) representing the second half of the sensu stricto clade (Clade 14). Several isolates representing species from genera morphologically allied to Pseudocercospora were also grouped in Clade 14. These included Stigmina platani, Cercostigmina protearum var. leucadendri (as Pseudocercospora leucadendri, see below), Cercostigmina protearum var. hakeae (as Pseudocercospora hakea, see below), Phaeoisariopsis griseola f. griseola (as Pseudocercospora griseola f. griseola, see Crous et al. 2006) and Pseudophaeoramularia angolensis (as Pseudocercospora angolensis, see below), which supports previous proposals to include these genera in Pseudocercospora s. str.


Phylogenetic lineages in Pseudocercospora.

Crous PW, Braun U, Hunter GC, Wingfield MJ, Verkley GJ, Shin HD, Nakashima C, Groenewald JZ - Stud. Mycol. (2013)

Consensus phylogram (50 % majority rule) of 12 002 trees resulting from a Bayesian analysis of the LSU sequence alignment using MrBayes v. 3.1.2. Bayesian posterior probabilities are indicated with colour-coded branches (see legend) and the scale bar represents the expected changes per site. Important clades are indicated in coloured blocks and numbered. The tree was rooted to Saccharomyces cerevisiae (GenBank Z73326).
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3713886&req=5

Figure 4: Consensus phylogram (50 % majority rule) of 12 002 trees resulting from a Bayesian analysis of the LSU sequence alignment using MrBayes v. 3.1.2. Bayesian posterior probabilities are indicated with colour-coded branches (see legend) and the scale bar represents the expected changes per site. Important clades are indicated in coloured blocks and numbered. The tree was rooted to Saccharomyces cerevisiae (GenBank Z73326).
Mentions: Large Subunit (LSU) phylogeny: The final aligned LSU dataset contained 316 ingroup taxa with a total of 1305 characters and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (GenBank Accession: Z73326) served as the outgroup taxon. From this alignment 827 characters were used for the Bayesian analysis; the consensus trees and posterior probabilities were calculated (Fig. 4) from the 12 002 trees left after discarding those used for burn-in. The resulting LSU phylogeny resolved several clades (Clades 1-14) grouping species of Pseudocercospora and allied genera (Fig. 4). Clade 1 (Posterior Probability (PP) value of 1.0) including Cyphellophora and Strelitziana represented by one of the two basal lineages. Thedgonia ligustrina (100 %) represented the second basal clade (PP = 1.0). In the Pleosporales, Clade 3 included Xenostigmina zilleri (PP = 1.0) and Clade 4 Pseudocercospora cantuariensis (PP = 1.0), the latter being described below as Phaeomycocentrospora cantuariensis. Clade 5 contained Cladosporium species belonging to the teleomorph genus Davidiella (PP = 1.0). Clade 6 (PP = 1.0) represented species belonging to Teratosphaeria and including the recently established genus Microcyclospora. Clade 7 (PP = 1.0) accommodated species of Dissoconium. Clade 8 (PP = 1.0) including species representing Mycosphaerella, Pseudocercospora and Zasmidium, as well as the recently established genus Microcyclosporella. Clade 9 (PP = 1.0) included Pseudocercospora tibouchinigena, Pseudocercospora egenula described below as Paracercospora egenula and the Mycosphaerella ellipsoidea complex. Clade 10 (PP = 1.0) accommodated species of other genera namely Pseudocercosporella, Mycosphaerella ulmi (Phleospora), Muiraea, Cercospora and Septoria. Clade 11 (PP = 1.0) included Mycosphaerella species with Sonderhenia anamorphs. Clade 12 (PP = 1.0) is sister to Clade 11 and included species representing taxa of Mycosphaerella and their associated pseudocercospora-like anamorphs, appeared to represent a novel genus. Other genera in this clade included Scolecostigmina and Trochophora. The isolates representing Trochophora are accommodated at a basal position in this clade with no PP support. The three isolates of Scolecostigmina mangiferae resided in a well-supported sub-clade (PP = 1.0) close to isolates regarded as part of the Mycosphaerella heimii complex (P. acaciigena, M. irregulariramosa, M. colombiensis, P. thailandica, M. heimii, M. heimioides, M. konae), described below in Pallidocercospora. Clade 13 (PP = 1.0) accommodated Passalora eucalypti. The remainder of the phylogeny encompassed Clade 14 (PP = 1.0), representing Pseudocercospora s. str., and accommodated the majority of Pseudocercospora species from many different hosts. The type species of Pseudocercospora, P. vitis was included in this clade. Interestingly, P. vitis was basal in this clade with the majority of Pseudocercospora species radiating out from the basal Pseudocercospora isolates. The LSU phylogeny provided a well-supported sub-clade (PP = 1.0) representing the second half of the sensu stricto clade (Clade 14). Several isolates representing species from genera morphologically allied to Pseudocercospora were also grouped in Clade 14. These included Stigmina platani, Cercostigmina protearum var. leucadendri (as Pseudocercospora leucadendri, see below), Cercostigmina protearum var. hakeae (as Pseudocercospora hakea, see below), Phaeoisariopsis griseola f. griseola (as Pseudocercospora griseola f. griseola, see Crous et al. 2006) and Pseudophaeoramularia angolensis (as Pseudocercospora angolensis, see below), which supports previous proposals to include these genera in Pseudocercospora s. str.

Bottom Line: Braun, Pseudocercospora lonicericola (W.Yamam.) Deighton, Pseudocercospora zelkovae (Hori) X.J.Liu & Y.L.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Uppsalalaan 8, 3584 CT, Utrecht, the Netherlands ; Microbiology, Department of Biology, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht, the Netherlands ; Wageningen University and Research Centre (WUR), Laboratory of Phytopathology, Droevendaalsesteeg 1, 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT

Unlabelled: Pseudocercospora is a large cosmopolitan genus of plant pathogenic fungi that are commonly associated with leaf and fruit spots as well as blights on a wide range of plant hosts. They occur in arid as well as wet environments and in a wide range of climates including cool temperate, sub-tropical and tropical regions. Pseudocercospora is now treated as a genus in its own right, although formerly recognised as either an anamorphic state of Mycosphaerella or having mycosphaerella-like teleomorphs. The aim of this study was to sequence the partial 28S nuclear ribosomal RNA gene of a selected set of isolates to resolve phylogenetic generic limits within the Pseudocercospora complex. From these data, 14 clades are recognised, six of which cluster in Mycosphaerellaceae. Pseudocercospora s. str. represents a distinct clade, sister to Passalora eucalypti, and a clade representing the genera Scolecostigmina, Trochophora and Pallidocercospora gen. nov., taxa formerly accommodated in the Mycosphaerella heimii complex and characterised by smooth, pale brown conidia, as well as the formation of red crystals in agar media. Other clades in Mycosphaerellaceae include Sonderhenia, Microcyclosporella, and Paracercospora. Pseudocercosporella resides in a large clade along with Phloeospora, Miuraea, Cercospora and Septoria. Additional clades represent Dissoconiaceae, Teratosphaeriaceae, Cladosporiaceae, and the genera Xenostigmina, Strelitziana, Cyphellophora and Thedgonia. The genus Phaeomycocentrospora is introduced to accommodate Mycocentrospora cantuariensis, primarily distinguished from Pseudocercospora based on its hyaline hyphae, broad conidiogenous loci and hila. Host specificity was considered for 146 species of Pseudocercospora occurring on 115 host genera from 33 countries. Partial nucleotide sequence data for three gene loci, ITS, EF-1α, and ACT suggest that the majority of these species are host specific. Species identified on the basis of host, symptomatology and general morphology, within the same geographic region, frequently differed phylogenetically, indicating that the application of European and American names to Asian taxa, and vice versa, was often not warranted.

Taxonomic novelties: New genera - Pallidocercospora Crous, Phaeomycocentrospora Crous, H.D. Shin & U. Braun; New species - Cercospora eucommiae Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Microcyclospora quercina Crous & Verkley, Pseudocercospora ampelopsis Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora cercidicola Crous, U. Braun & C. Nakash., Pseudocercospora crispans G.C. Hunter & Crous, Pseudocercospora crocea Crous, U. Braun, G.C. Hunter & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora haiweiensis Crous & X. Zhou, Pseudocercospora humulicola Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora marginalis G.C. Hunter, Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora ocimi-basilici Crous, M.E. Palm & U. Braun, Pseudocercospora plectranthi G.C. Hunter, Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora proteae Crous, Pseudocercospora pseudostigmina-platani Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora pyracanthigena Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora ravenalicola G.C. Hunter & Crous, Pseudocercospora rhamnellae G.C. Hunter, H.D. Shin, U. Braun & Crous, Pseudocercospora rhododendri-indici Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora tibouchinigena Crous & U. Braun, Pseudocercospora xanthocercidis Crous, U. Braun & A. Wood, Pseudocercosporella koreana Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin; New combinations - Pallidocercospora acaciigena (Crous & M.J. Wingf.) Crous & M.J. Wingf., Pallidocercospora crystallina (Crous & M.J. Wingf.) Crous & M.J. Wingf., Pallidocercospora heimii (Crous) Crous, Pallidocercospora heimioides (Crous & M.J. Wingf.) Crous & M.J. Wingf., Pallidocercospora holualoana (Crous, Joanne E. Taylor & M.E. Palm) Crous, Pallidocercospora konae (Crous, Joanne E. Taylor & M.E. Palm) Crous, Pallidoocercospora irregulariramosa (Crous & M.J. Wingf.) Crous & M.J. Wingf., Phaeomycocentrospora cantuariensis (E.S. Salmon & Wormald) Crous, H.D. Shin & U. Braun, Pseudocercospora hakeae (U. Braun & Crous) U. Braun & Crous, Pseudocercospora leucadendri (Cooke) U. Braun & Crous, Pseudocercospora snelliana (Reichert) U. Braun, H.D. Shin, C. Nakash. & Crous, Pseudocercosporella chaenomelis (Y. Suto) C. Nakash., Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin; Typifications: Epitypifications - Pseudocercospora angolensis (T. Carvalho & O. Mendes) Crous & U. Braun, Pseudocercospora araliae (Henn.) Deighton, Pseudocercospora cercidis-chinensis H.D. Shin & U. Braun, Pseudocercospora corylopsidis (Togashi & Katsuki) C. Nakash. & Tak. Kobay., Pseudocercospora dovyalidis (Chupp & Doidge) Deighton, Pseudocercospora fukuokaensis (Chupp) X.J. Liu & Y.L. Guo, Pseudocercospora humuli (Hori) Y.L. Guo & X.J. Liu, Pseudocercospora kiggelariae (Syd.) Crous & U. Braun, Pseudocercospora lyoniae (Katsuki & Tak. Kobay.) Deighton, Pseudocercospora lythri H.D. Shin & U. Braun, Pseudocercospora sambucigena U. Braun, Crous & K. Schub., Pseudocercospora stephanandrae (Tak. Kobay. & H. Horie) C. Nakash. & Tak. Kobay., Pseudocercospora viburnigena U. Braun & Crous, Pseudocercosporella chaenomelis (Y. Suto) C. Nakash., Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Xenostigmina zilleri (A. Funk) Crous; Lectotypification - Pseudocercospora ocimicola (Petr. & Cif.) Deighton; Neotypifications - Pseudocercospora kiggelariae (Syd.) Crous & U. Braun, Pseudocercospora lonicericola (W. Yamam.) Deighton, Pseudocercospora zelkovae (Hori) X.J. Liu & Y.L. Guo.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus