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Wild poliovirus importation, Central African Republic.

Gouandjika-Vasilache I, Mazitchi A, Gumede N, Manirakiza A, Manenegu C, Koyazegbe TD, Burns C - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2013)

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Since the Global Polio Eradication Initiative was launched in 1988, indigenous transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) has been interrupted in all countries except Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria... In CAR, the last case of poliomyelitis caused by indigenous transmission of wild poliovirus was reported in 2000, but importation of WPV type 1 has been reported... Of 163 AFP cases from 2009, 14 in Ouham-Pende district were laboratory confirmed as WPV3; this cluster was designated D2B2B1... Sequencing results showed that the virus in this cluster belonged to West Africa B genotype, which was circulating in Nigeria and southern Chad at that time (Figure)... Of 142 AFP cases from 2011, four in Ouham district were laboratory confirmed as WPV1; this cluster was designated I6C2B4C1A2... Sequencing results showed that the virus in this cluster belonged to West Africa B genotype, which was circulating in south Chad and Nigeria at the time (Figure)... In 2009, WPV3 was imported from southern Chad to the Ouham-Pende district in CAR... This insecure district is difficult to access, but routine OPV coverage was reported as 61% for 2009, compared with the country’s official OPV coverage of 55%... The apparently higher coverage in areas of insecurity is likely the result of inaccurate target population estimates... CAR is one of the countries with the highest predicted risk for WPV circulation after importation... The 3 WPV importation events we report demonstrate that current immunization levels in this country are insufficient to guard against polio... High, sustained levels of routine OPV coverage in every district, supplemented by high-quality supplementary immunization activities, will help prevent future outbreaks... Surveillance standards must also be maintained to ensure the rapid detection of WPV importation, thus enabling timely response and containment.

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Clusters of polio cases caused by wild poliovirus importations, Central African Republic, 2008–2011. Each circle represents 1 case of acute flaccid paralysis confirmed as polio. Black circles, cluster B2D1B, 2008 poliovirus (PV) type 1 SOAS importation from Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo); white circles, cluster D2B2B1, 2009 PV3 WEAF-B importation from Nigeria and southern Chad; gray circles, cluster I6C2B4C1A2, 2011 PV1 WEAF-B importation from southern Chad.
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Figure 1: Clusters of polio cases caused by wild poliovirus importations, Central African Republic, 2008–2011. Each circle represents 1 case of acute flaccid paralysis confirmed as polio. Black circles, cluster B2D1B, 2008 poliovirus (PV) type 1 SOAS importation from Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo); white circles, cluster D2B2B1, 2009 PV3 WEAF-B importation from Nigeria and southern Chad; gray circles, cluster I6C2B4C1A2, 2011 PV1 WEAF-B importation from southern Chad.

Mentions: Of 141 AFP cases from 2008, three, from Bangui, Ouham, and Ouaka districts, were laboratory confirmed as WPV1; this cluster was designated B2D1B (Figure). Sequencing results showed that the virus in this cluster belonged to the South Asia A (Indian) genotype, which was circulating in Angola and Democratic Republic of Congo at that time (Figure).


Wild poliovirus importation, Central African Republic.

Gouandjika-Vasilache I, Mazitchi A, Gumede N, Manirakiza A, Manenegu C, Koyazegbe TD, Burns C - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2013)

Clusters of polio cases caused by wild poliovirus importations, Central African Republic, 2008–2011. Each circle represents 1 case of acute flaccid paralysis confirmed as polio. Black circles, cluster B2D1B, 2008 poliovirus (PV) type 1 SOAS importation from Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo); white circles, cluster D2B2B1, 2009 PV3 WEAF-B importation from Nigeria and southern Chad; gray circles, cluster I6C2B4C1A2, 2011 PV1 WEAF-B importation from southern Chad.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3713836&req=5

Figure 1: Clusters of polio cases caused by wild poliovirus importations, Central African Republic, 2008–2011. Each circle represents 1 case of acute flaccid paralysis confirmed as polio. Black circles, cluster B2D1B, 2008 poliovirus (PV) type 1 SOAS importation from Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo); white circles, cluster D2B2B1, 2009 PV3 WEAF-B importation from Nigeria and southern Chad; gray circles, cluster I6C2B4C1A2, 2011 PV1 WEAF-B importation from southern Chad.
Mentions: Of 141 AFP cases from 2008, three, from Bangui, Ouham, and Ouaka districts, were laboratory confirmed as WPV1; this cluster was designated B2D1B (Figure). Sequencing results showed that the virus in this cluster belonged to the South Asia A (Indian) genotype, which was circulating in Angola and Democratic Republic of Congo at that time (Figure).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED EXCERPT
Please rate it.

Since the Global Polio Eradication Initiative was launched in 1988, indigenous transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) has been interrupted in all countries except Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria... In CAR, the last case of poliomyelitis caused by indigenous transmission of wild poliovirus was reported in 2000, but importation of WPV type 1 has been reported... Of 163 AFP cases from 2009, 14 in Ouham-Pende district were laboratory confirmed as WPV3; this cluster was designated D2B2B1... Sequencing results showed that the virus in this cluster belonged to West Africa B genotype, which was circulating in Nigeria and southern Chad at that time (Figure)... Of 142 AFP cases from 2011, four in Ouham district were laboratory confirmed as WPV1; this cluster was designated I6C2B4C1A2... Sequencing results showed that the virus in this cluster belonged to West Africa B genotype, which was circulating in south Chad and Nigeria at the time (Figure)... In 2009, WPV3 was imported from southern Chad to the Ouham-Pende district in CAR... This insecure district is difficult to access, but routine OPV coverage was reported as 61% for 2009, compared with the country’s official OPV coverage of 55%... The apparently higher coverage in areas of insecurity is likely the result of inaccurate target population estimates... CAR is one of the countries with the highest predicted risk for WPV circulation after importation... The 3 WPV importation events we report demonstrate that current immunization levels in this country are insufficient to guard against polio... High, sustained levels of routine OPV coverage in every district, supplemented by high-quality supplementary immunization activities, will help prevent future outbreaks... Surveillance standards must also be maintained to ensure the rapid detection of WPV importation, thus enabling timely response and containment.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus