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Ghrelin receptors in non-Mammalian vertebrates.

Kaiya H, Kangawa K, Miyazato M - Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) (2013)

Bottom Line: The growth hormone secretagogue-receptor (GHS-R) was discovered in humans and pigs in 1996.Although the ghrelin system in non-mammalian vertebrates is a subject of great interest, protein sequence data for the receptor in non-mammalian vertebrates has been limited until recently, and related biological information has not been well organized.In this review, we summarize current information related to the ghrelin receptor in non-mammalian vertebrates.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center Research Institute , Osaka , Japan.

ABSTRACT
The growth hormone secretagogue-receptor (GHS-R) was discovered in humans and pigs in 1996. The endogenous ligand, ghrelin, was discovered 3 years later, in 1999, and our understanding of the physiological significance of the ghrelin system in vertebrates has grown steadily since then. Although the ghrelin system in non-mammalian vertebrates is a subject of great interest, protein sequence data for the receptor in non-mammalian vertebrates has been limited until recently, and related biological information has not been well organized. In this review, we summarize current information related to the ghrelin receptor in non-mammalian vertebrates.

No MeSH data available.


Phylogenetic tree of GHS-Ra and GHS-R1a-LR in non-mammalian vertebrates. The phylogenetic tree was constructed by using the neighbor-joining method with MEGA4 (http://www.megasoftware.net/). The numbers on the branch points are the bootstrap values (as percentages based on 2000 replicates). The scale bar indicates the average number of substitutions per position (a relative measure of evolutionary distance). Receptors for human motilin (MTLR), neuromedin-U (NMUR1), and neurotensin (NTSR1) were used as the outgroup.
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Figure 2: Phylogenetic tree of GHS-Ra and GHS-R1a-LR in non-mammalian vertebrates. The phylogenetic tree was constructed by using the neighbor-joining method with MEGA4 (http://www.megasoftware.net/). The numbers on the branch points are the bootstrap values (as percentages based on 2000 replicates). The scale bar indicates the average number of substitutions per position (a relative measure of evolutionary distance). Receptors for human motilin (MTLR), neuromedin-U (NMUR1), and neurotensin (NTSR1) were used as the outgroup.

Mentions: The non-mammalian GHS-Rs are also roughly divided into two types: (i) an isoform that arises from regular splicing of the gene and (ii) an isoform derived from alternative splicing of the gene (Figure 1). The former is further classified into two isoforms (Figure 1): one denotes an isoform that we designated “GHS-Ra,” which has structural properties similar to those of the mammalian GHS-R1a and is activated by ghrelin and GHSs. GHS-Ra is further divided into two paralogs “1a” and “2a,” where “GHS-R2a” refers to the receptor with a “type-2” AA sequence distinct from that of GHS-R1a and whose existence is confirmed only in specific fish. The other denotes another isoform that we designated “GHS-R1a-like receptor (GHS-R1a-LR),” which has structural features that differ from those of GHS-Ra and for which intracellular Ca2+ increase in response to ghrelin or GHS treatment is either small or not confirmed. This distinction between GHS-Ra and GHS-R1a-LR is evident in the phylogenetic analysis based on the AA sequences of ghrelin receptors (Figure 2).


Ghrelin receptors in non-Mammalian vertebrates.

Kaiya H, Kangawa K, Miyazato M - Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) (2013)

Phylogenetic tree of GHS-Ra and GHS-R1a-LR in non-mammalian vertebrates. The phylogenetic tree was constructed by using the neighbor-joining method with MEGA4 (http://www.megasoftware.net/). The numbers on the branch points are the bootstrap values (as percentages based on 2000 replicates). The scale bar indicates the average number of substitutions per position (a relative measure of evolutionary distance). Receptors for human motilin (MTLR), neuromedin-U (NMUR1), and neurotensin (NTSR1) were used as the outgroup.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3713435&req=5

Figure 2: Phylogenetic tree of GHS-Ra and GHS-R1a-LR in non-mammalian vertebrates. The phylogenetic tree was constructed by using the neighbor-joining method with MEGA4 (http://www.megasoftware.net/). The numbers on the branch points are the bootstrap values (as percentages based on 2000 replicates). The scale bar indicates the average number of substitutions per position (a relative measure of evolutionary distance). Receptors for human motilin (MTLR), neuromedin-U (NMUR1), and neurotensin (NTSR1) were used as the outgroup.
Mentions: The non-mammalian GHS-Rs are also roughly divided into two types: (i) an isoform that arises from regular splicing of the gene and (ii) an isoform derived from alternative splicing of the gene (Figure 1). The former is further classified into two isoforms (Figure 1): one denotes an isoform that we designated “GHS-Ra,” which has structural properties similar to those of the mammalian GHS-R1a and is activated by ghrelin and GHSs. GHS-Ra is further divided into two paralogs “1a” and “2a,” where “GHS-R2a” refers to the receptor with a “type-2” AA sequence distinct from that of GHS-R1a and whose existence is confirmed only in specific fish. The other denotes another isoform that we designated “GHS-R1a-like receptor (GHS-R1a-LR),” which has structural features that differ from those of GHS-Ra and for which intracellular Ca2+ increase in response to ghrelin or GHS treatment is either small or not confirmed. This distinction between GHS-Ra and GHS-R1a-LR is evident in the phylogenetic analysis based on the AA sequences of ghrelin receptors (Figure 2).

Bottom Line: The growth hormone secretagogue-receptor (GHS-R) was discovered in humans and pigs in 1996.Although the ghrelin system in non-mammalian vertebrates is a subject of great interest, protein sequence data for the receptor in non-mammalian vertebrates has been limited until recently, and related biological information has not been well organized.In this review, we summarize current information related to the ghrelin receptor in non-mammalian vertebrates.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center Research Institute , Osaka , Japan.

ABSTRACT
The growth hormone secretagogue-receptor (GHS-R) was discovered in humans and pigs in 1996. The endogenous ligand, ghrelin, was discovered 3 years later, in 1999, and our understanding of the physiological significance of the ghrelin system in vertebrates has grown steadily since then. Although the ghrelin system in non-mammalian vertebrates is a subject of great interest, protein sequence data for the receptor in non-mammalian vertebrates has been limited until recently, and related biological information has not been well organized. In this review, we summarize current information related to the ghrelin receptor in non-mammalian vertebrates.

No MeSH data available.