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Songbirds and humans apply different strategies in a sound sequence discrimination task.

Seki Y, Suzuki K, Osawa AM, Okanoya K - Front Psychol (2013)

Bottom Line: There was no evidence that the birds successfully extracted the abstract rule (i.e., AAB and ABB); MMF-GO subjects did not produce a GO response for FFM and vice versa.The results and questionnaires revealed that participants extracted the abstract rule, and most of them employed it to discriminate the sequences.Our results showed that the human participants applied the abstract rule in the task even without instruction but Bengalese finches did not, thereby reconfirming that humans have to extract abstract rules from sound sequences that is distinct from non-human animals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: ERATO Okanoya Emotional Information Project, Japan Science and Technology Agency Wako, Japan ; Laboratory for Biolinguistics, Brain Science Institute, RIKEN Wako, Japan.

ABSTRACT
The abilities of animals and humans to extract rules from sound sequences have previously been compared using observation of spontaneous responses and conditioning techniques. However, the results were inconsistently interpreted across studies possibly due to methodological and/or species differences. Therefore, we examined the strategies for discrimination of sound sequences in Bengalese finches and humans using the same protocol. Birds were trained on a GO/NOGO task to discriminate between two categories of sound stimulus generated based on an "AAB" or "ABB" rule. The sound elements used were taken from a variety of male (M) and female (F) calls, such that the sequences could be represented as MMF and MFF. In test sessions, FFM and FMM sequences, which were never presented in the training sessions but conformed to the rule, were presented as probe stimuli. The results suggested two discriminative strategies were being applied: (1) memorizing sound patterns of either GO or NOGO stimuli and generating the appropriate responses for only those sounds; and (2) using the repeated element as a cue. There was no evidence that the birds successfully extracted the abstract rule (i.e., AAB and ABB); MMF-GO subjects did not produce a GO response for FFM and vice versa. Next we examined whether those strategies were also applicable for human participants on the same task. The results and questionnaires revealed that participants extracted the abstract rule, and most of them employed it to discriminate the sequences. This strategy was never observed in bird subjects, although some participants used strategies similar to the birds when responding to the probe stimuli. Our results showed that the human participants applied the abstract rule in the task even without instruction but Bengalese finches did not, thereby reconfirming that humans have to extract abstract rules from sound sequences that is distinct from non-human animals.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Response of human participants in the human voice experiment. Five participants (#9, #11, #23, #24, #25) clearly showed that they extracted the rule (AAB and ABB) from training stimuli and applied it to the response to the probe stimuli. Although the response of #12 was similar to those 5 participants, the bias to GO response for the probe stimuli was not found. Participant #10 showed unsystematic responses to the probe stimuli. The response pattern of #22 is similar to the response of birds #2, #5, and #13.
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Figure 3: Response of human participants in the human voice experiment. Five participants (#9, #11, #23, #24, #25) clearly showed that they extracted the rule (AAB and ABB) from training stimuli and applied it to the response to the probe stimuli. Although the response of #12 was similar to those 5 participants, the bias to GO response for the probe stimuli was not found. Participant #10 showed unsystematic responses to the probe stimuli. The response pattern of #22 is similar to the response of birds #2, #5, and #13.

Mentions: All participants quickly reached the discriminative criterion (HV: 52.1 ± 0.78 trials; BV: 63.3 ± 2.57 trials; mean ± S.E.), as expected. Although the number of trials to meet the criterion in BV condition was greater than HV condition, the difference was statistically marginal (w = 47.5, p = 0.07, Wilcoxon rank sum test). Most participants (5 out of 8 in HV; Figure 3, and 6 out of 8 in BV; Figure 4) showed a strong and significant bias for the GO direction when presented with rule-conforming probe stimuli (p < 0.001 in each participant, binomial test) and for the NOGO direction when presented with non-rule-conforming stimuli (p < 0.001 in each participant); similar biases were never exhibited by the birds. The GO response rate for rule-conforming probe stimuli was significantly greater than for non-rule-conforming probe stimuli in those 11 participants (p < 0.001 in each participant, chi-square test). Those participants basically reported finding the “algebraic” rule (e.g., “a sound was repeated twice then a different sound follows them, or a different sound follows after repetition of a sound”) and used it as the discriminative strategy for the training and probe stimuli. However, even participants who reported not explicitly finding the rule used it as the cue for the probe stimuli. For example, participant #9 (HV: FMM-GO) reported using GO response for FMM / NOGO response for FFM (not ABB/AAB) rule as the strategy for the training stimuli; however, he also showed significantly more GO responses for MFF and NOGO responses for MMF in the probe trials (Figure 3 top left panel). Similarly, participant #13 (BV: FMM-GO) reported using the first and second sound (GO for FMX / NOGO for FFX) as the strategy; however, she showed significantly more GO responses for MFF than MMF in the probe tests (Figure 4 top left panel).


Songbirds and humans apply different strategies in a sound sequence discrimination task.

Seki Y, Suzuki K, Osawa AM, Okanoya K - Front Psychol (2013)

Response of human participants in the human voice experiment. Five participants (#9, #11, #23, #24, #25) clearly showed that they extracted the rule (AAB and ABB) from training stimuli and applied it to the response to the probe stimuli. Although the response of #12 was similar to those 5 participants, the bias to GO response for the probe stimuli was not found. Participant #10 showed unsystematic responses to the probe stimuli. The response pattern of #22 is similar to the response of birds #2, #5, and #13.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3713397&req=5

Figure 3: Response of human participants in the human voice experiment. Five participants (#9, #11, #23, #24, #25) clearly showed that they extracted the rule (AAB and ABB) from training stimuli and applied it to the response to the probe stimuli. Although the response of #12 was similar to those 5 participants, the bias to GO response for the probe stimuli was not found. Participant #10 showed unsystematic responses to the probe stimuli. The response pattern of #22 is similar to the response of birds #2, #5, and #13.
Mentions: All participants quickly reached the discriminative criterion (HV: 52.1 ± 0.78 trials; BV: 63.3 ± 2.57 trials; mean ± S.E.), as expected. Although the number of trials to meet the criterion in BV condition was greater than HV condition, the difference was statistically marginal (w = 47.5, p = 0.07, Wilcoxon rank sum test). Most participants (5 out of 8 in HV; Figure 3, and 6 out of 8 in BV; Figure 4) showed a strong and significant bias for the GO direction when presented with rule-conforming probe stimuli (p < 0.001 in each participant, binomial test) and for the NOGO direction when presented with non-rule-conforming stimuli (p < 0.001 in each participant); similar biases were never exhibited by the birds. The GO response rate for rule-conforming probe stimuli was significantly greater than for non-rule-conforming probe stimuli in those 11 participants (p < 0.001 in each participant, chi-square test). Those participants basically reported finding the “algebraic” rule (e.g., “a sound was repeated twice then a different sound follows them, or a different sound follows after repetition of a sound”) and used it as the discriminative strategy for the training and probe stimuli. However, even participants who reported not explicitly finding the rule used it as the cue for the probe stimuli. For example, participant #9 (HV: FMM-GO) reported using GO response for FMM / NOGO response for FFM (not ABB/AAB) rule as the strategy for the training stimuli; however, he also showed significantly more GO responses for MFF and NOGO responses for MMF in the probe trials (Figure 3 top left panel). Similarly, participant #13 (BV: FMM-GO) reported using the first and second sound (GO for FMX / NOGO for FFX) as the strategy; however, she showed significantly more GO responses for MFF than MMF in the probe tests (Figure 4 top left panel).

Bottom Line: There was no evidence that the birds successfully extracted the abstract rule (i.e., AAB and ABB); MMF-GO subjects did not produce a GO response for FFM and vice versa.The results and questionnaires revealed that participants extracted the abstract rule, and most of them employed it to discriminate the sequences.Our results showed that the human participants applied the abstract rule in the task even without instruction but Bengalese finches did not, thereby reconfirming that humans have to extract abstract rules from sound sequences that is distinct from non-human animals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: ERATO Okanoya Emotional Information Project, Japan Science and Technology Agency Wako, Japan ; Laboratory for Biolinguistics, Brain Science Institute, RIKEN Wako, Japan.

ABSTRACT
The abilities of animals and humans to extract rules from sound sequences have previously been compared using observation of spontaneous responses and conditioning techniques. However, the results were inconsistently interpreted across studies possibly due to methodological and/or species differences. Therefore, we examined the strategies for discrimination of sound sequences in Bengalese finches and humans using the same protocol. Birds were trained on a GO/NOGO task to discriminate between two categories of sound stimulus generated based on an "AAB" or "ABB" rule. The sound elements used were taken from a variety of male (M) and female (F) calls, such that the sequences could be represented as MMF and MFF. In test sessions, FFM and FMM sequences, which were never presented in the training sessions but conformed to the rule, were presented as probe stimuli. The results suggested two discriminative strategies were being applied: (1) memorizing sound patterns of either GO or NOGO stimuli and generating the appropriate responses for only those sounds; and (2) using the repeated element as a cue. There was no evidence that the birds successfully extracted the abstract rule (i.e., AAB and ABB); MMF-GO subjects did not produce a GO response for FFM and vice versa. Next we examined whether those strategies were also applicable for human participants on the same task. The results and questionnaires revealed that participants extracted the abstract rule, and most of them employed it to discriminate the sequences. This strategy was never observed in bird subjects, although some participants used strategies similar to the birds when responding to the probe stimuli. Our results showed that the human participants applied the abstract rule in the task even without instruction but Bengalese finches did not, thereby reconfirming that humans have to extract abstract rules from sound sequences that is distinct from non-human animals.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus