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Particulate matter and nanoparticles toxicology.

Alfaro-Moreno E, Nawrot TS, Nemmar A, Rosas I, Schwarze P - Biomed Res Int (2013)

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Humans have been exposed for thousands of years to particulate matter (PM) from natural and anthropogenic sources... Early epidemiological data have shown evidence of the relation between inhalation of PM and several lung diseases, including lung fibrosis and lung cancer... The Meuse valley fog of 1930, the Donora smog incident of 1948, and the London great smog event of 1952 were the foundation to create a legislation regarding to air pollutants... Despite all the clinical, epidemiological, and toxicological evidence, we are far from understanding the toxicology of particles, in part by the combined effects and interactions of various substances mixed within the particles... In addition, the lack of evidence of a threshold value makes it difficult to set safe limit values... Therefore, a constant growth in the total number of publications related to urban PM and NP is easy to observe when a simple search is done on PUBMED... When the words “particles” and “air pollution” are searched, 101 publications are found from 1900 to 1970... Later on, during the 1990s, the evaluation of particles with different aerodynamic sizes (PM10, PM2.5, and ultrafine particles) made the number of publications to grow up to more than 600... We also include three reviews, discussing the cellular effects of diesel particles, another one discussing the evidence relating the exposure to particles and other inhaled pollutants to the increased risk of Alzheimer and Parkinson's diseases... Finally, a review of the state of the art in the in vivo and in vitro toxicological characterization of particles was prepared for this issue by the guest editors, where we discuss the latest evidence of local and systemic effects induced by inhaled particles... Great efforts have been done during the last 50 years to understand the toxicology of particulate matter, and much information is available helping to understand the risks of exposure to different types of particles... Nevertheless, there is much to do in the field, and the efforts presented here will be of great value to push further the frontiers of our knowledge on the particulate matter toxicology field... Abderrahim NemmarErnesto Alfaro-MorenoIrma RosasPer SchwarzeTim S... Nawrot

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Mentions: Despite all the clinical, epidemiological, and toxicological evidence, we are far from understanding the toxicology of particles, in part by the combined effects and interactions of various substances mixed within the particles. In addition, the lack of evidence of a threshold value makes it difficult to set safe limit values. Therefore, a constant growth in the total number of publications related to urban PM and NP is easy to observe when a simple search is done on PUBMED. When the words “particles” and “air pollution” are searched, 101 publications are found from 1900 to 1970. The number rises to 149 from 1971 to 1980. During the 1980s, the first efforts were done to evaluate the effects of particles with different aerodynamical sizes but the number of publications remained in 150. Later on, during the 1990s, the evaluation of particles with different aerodynamic sizes (PM10, PM2.5, and ultrafine particles) made the number of publications to grow up to more than 600. The continuous evaluation of urban particles and the arising use of nanomaterials led to almost 2000 publications during the first decade of this century. If the rate of publications on these fields keeps the same rhythm as the first two years of the present decade, we will find about 2400 publications for the 2011–2020 decade (Figure 1).


Particulate matter and nanoparticles toxicology.

Alfaro-Moreno E, Nawrot TS, Nemmar A, Rosas I, Schwarze P - Biomed Res Int (2013)

© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3713361&req=5

Mentions: Despite all the clinical, epidemiological, and toxicological evidence, we are far from understanding the toxicology of particles, in part by the combined effects and interactions of various substances mixed within the particles. In addition, the lack of evidence of a threshold value makes it difficult to set safe limit values. Therefore, a constant growth in the total number of publications related to urban PM and NP is easy to observe when a simple search is done on PUBMED. When the words “particles” and “air pollution” are searched, 101 publications are found from 1900 to 1970. The number rises to 149 from 1971 to 1980. During the 1980s, the first efforts were done to evaluate the effects of particles with different aerodynamical sizes but the number of publications remained in 150. Later on, during the 1990s, the evaluation of particles with different aerodynamic sizes (PM10, PM2.5, and ultrafine particles) made the number of publications to grow up to more than 600. The continuous evaluation of urban particles and the arising use of nanomaterials led to almost 2000 publications during the first decade of this century. If the rate of publications on these fields keeps the same rhythm as the first two years of the present decade, we will find about 2400 publications for the 2011–2020 decade (Figure 1).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED EXCERPT
Please rate it.

Humans have been exposed for thousands of years to particulate matter (PM) from natural and anthropogenic sources... Early epidemiological data have shown evidence of the relation between inhalation of PM and several lung diseases, including lung fibrosis and lung cancer... The Meuse valley fog of 1930, the Donora smog incident of 1948, and the London great smog event of 1952 were the foundation to create a legislation regarding to air pollutants... Despite all the clinical, epidemiological, and toxicological evidence, we are far from understanding the toxicology of particles, in part by the combined effects and interactions of various substances mixed within the particles... In addition, the lack of evidence of a threshold value makes it difficult to set safe limit values... Therefore, a constant growth in the total number of publications related to urban PM and NP is easy to observe when a simple search is done on PUBMED... When the words “particles” and “air pollution” are searched, 101 publications are found from 1900 to 1970... Later on, during the 1990s, the evaluation of particles with different aerodynamic sizes (PM10, PM2.5, and ultrafine particles) made the number of publications to grow up to more than 600... We also include three reviews, discussing the cellular effects of diesel particles, another one discussing the evidence relating the exposure to particles and other inhaled pollutants to the increased risk of Alzheimer and Parkinson's diseases... Finally, a review of the state of the art in the in vivo and in vitro toxicological characterization of particles was prepared for this issue by the guest editors, where we discuss the latest evidence of local and systemic effects induced by inhaled particles... Great efforts have been done during the last 50 years to understand the toxicology of particulate matter, and much information is available helping to understand the risks of exposure to different types of particles... Nevertheless, there is much to do in the field, and the efforts presented here will be of great value to push further the frontiers of our knowledge on the particulate matter toxicology field... Abderrahim NemmarErnesto Alfaro-MorenoIrma RosasPer SchwarzeTim S... Nawrot

Show MeSH