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Optimization of confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope design.

LaRocca F, Dhalla AH, Kelly MP, Farsiu S, Izatt JA - J Biomed Opt (2013)

Bottom Line: However, to obtain optimized image quality, one must design the cSLO around scanner technology limitations and minimize the effects of ocular aberrations and imaging artifacts.We describe a cSLO design methodology resulting in a simple, relatively inexpensive, and compact lens-based cSLO design optimized to balance resolution and throughput for a 20-deg field of view (FOV) with minimal imaging artifacts.Through an experiment comparing our optimized cSLO design to a commercial cSLO system, we show that our design demonstrates a significant improvement in both image quality and resolution.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Duke University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA. fl20@duke.edu

ABSTRACT
Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (cSLO) enables high-resolution and high-contrast imaging of the retina by employing spatial filtering for scattered light rejection. However, to obtain optimized image quality, one must design the cSLO around scanner technology limitations and minimize the effects of ocular aberrations and imaging artifacts. We describe a cSLO design methodology resulting in a simple, relatively inexpensive, and compact lens-based cSLO design optimized to balance resolution and throughput for a 20-deg field of view (FOV) with minimal imaging artifacts. We tested the imaging capabilities of our cSLO design with an experimental setup from which we obtained fast and high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) retinal images. At lower FOVs, we were able to visualize parafoveal cone photoreceptors and nerve fiber bundles even without the use of adaptive optics. Through an experiment comparing our optimized cSLO design to a commercial cSLO system, we show that our design demonstrates a significant improvement in both image quality and resolution.

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A 6.7-deg FOV cSLO image of the fovea showing resolution of cone photoreceptors at retinal eccentricities . The large image is a single, un-averaged frame without background subtraction taken at 8 fps with a pinhole of 30-μm diameter or a times-diffraction-limited spot size (TDL) of 1. The cropped images span a 0.5-deg FOV.
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f9: A 6.7-deg FOV cSLO image of the fovea showing resolution of cone photoreceptors at retinal eccentricities . The large image is a single, un-averaged frame without background subtraction taken at 8 fps with a pinhole of 30-μm diameter or a times-diffraction-limited spot size (TDL) of 1. The cropped images span a 0.5-deg FOV.

Mentions: In the second set of experiments shown in Fig. 9, a 6.7-deg FOV foveal image was taken with a 30-μm pinhole (), and five 0.5-deg square FOV patches at 0.8-, 2.3-, 3.2-, 3.7-, and 4.3-deg eccentricity from the foveal center were digitally zoomed to qualify how close to the fovea photoreceptors were resolved, which appeared to be at retinal eccentricities .


Optimization of confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope design.

LaRocca F, Dhalla AH, Kelly MP, Farsiu S, Izatt JA - J Biomed Opt (2013)

A 6.7-deg FOV cSLO image of the fovea showing resolution of cone photoreceptors at retinal eccentricities . The large image is a single, un-averaged frame without background subtraction taken at 8 fps with a pinhole of 30-μm diameter or a times-diffraction-limited spot size (TDL) of 1. The cropped images span a 0.5-deg FOV.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3713285&req=5

f9: A 6.7-deg FOV cSLO image of the fovea showing resolution of cone photoreceptors at retinal eccentricities . The large image is a single, un-averaged frame without background subtraction taken at 8 fps with a pinhole of 30-μm diameter or a times-diffraction-limited spot size (TDL) of 1. The cropped images span a 0.5-deg FOV.
Mentions: In the second set of experiments shown in Fig. 9, a 6.7-deg FOV foveal image was taken with a 30-μm pinhole (), and five 0.5-deg square FOV patches at 0.8-, 2.3-, 3.2-, 3.7-, and 4.3-deg eccentricity from the foveal center were digitally zoomed to qualify how close to the fovea photoreceptors were resolved, which appeared to be at retinal eccentricities .

Bottom Line: However, to obtain optimized image quality, one must design the cSLO around scanner technology limitations and minimize the effects of ocular aberrations and imaging artifacts.We describe a cSLO design methodology resulting in a simple, relatively inexpensive, and compact lens-based cSLO design optimized to balance resolution and throughput for a 20-deg field of view (FOV) with minimal imaging artifacts.Through an experiment comparing our optimized cSLO design to a commercial cSLO system, we show that our design demonstrates a significant improvement in both image quality and resolution.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Duke University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA. fl20@duke.edu

ABSTRACT
Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (cSLO) enables high-resolution and high-contrast imaging of the retina by employing spatial filtering for scattered light rejection. However, to obtain optimized image quality, one must design the cSLO around scanner technology limitations and minimize the effects of ocular aberrations and imaging artifacts. We describe a cSLO design methodology resulting in a simple, relatively inexpensive, and compact lens-based cSLO design optimized to balance resolution and throughput for a 20-deg field of view (FOV) with minimal imaging artifacts. We tested the imaging capabilities of our cSLO design with an experimental setup from which we obtained fast and high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) retinal images. At lower FOVs, we were able to visualize parafoveal cone photoreceptors and nerve fiber bundles even without the use of adaptive optics. Through an experiment comparing our optimized cSLO design to a commercial cSLO system, we show that our design demonstrates a significant improvement in both image quality and resolution.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus