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Integrated fossil and molecular data reveal the biogeographic diversification of the eastern Asian-eastern North American disjunct hickory genus (Carya Nutt.).

Zhang JB, Li RQ, Xiang XG, Manchester SR, Lin L, Wang W, Wen J, Chen ZD - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: Our results support two major clades within Carya, corresponding to the lineages of eastern Asia and eastern North America.The split between the two disjunct clades is estimated to be 21.58 (95% HPD 11.07-35.51) Ma.The diversification rate of hickories in eastern North America appeared to be higher than that in eastern Asia, which is ascribed to greater ecological opportunities, key morphological innovations, and polyploidy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
The hickory genus (Carya) contains ca. 17 species distributed in subtropical and tropical regions of eastern Asia and subtropical to temperate regions of eastern North America. Previously, the phylogenetic relationships between eastern Asian and eastern North American species of Carya were not fully confirmed even with an extensive sampling, biogeographic and diversification patterns had thus never been investigated in a phylogenetic context. We sampled 17 species of Carya and 15 species representing all other genera of the Juglandaceae as outgroups, with eight nuclear and plastid loci to reconstruct the phylogeny of Carya. The phylogenetic positions of seven extinct genera of the Juglandaceae were inferred using morphological characters and the molecular phylogeny as a backbone constraint. Divergence times within Carya were estimated with relaxed Bayesian dating. Biogeographic analyses were performed in DIVA and LAGRANGE. Diversification rates were inferred by LASER and APE packages. Our results support two major clades within Carya, corresponding to the lineages of eastern Asia and eastern North America. The split between the two disjunct clades is estimated to be 21.58 (95% HPD 11.07-35.51) Ma. Genus-level DIVA and LAGRANGE analyses incorporating both extant and extinct genera of the Juglandaceae suggested that Carya originated in North America, and migrated to Eurasia during the early Tertiary via the North Atlantic land bridge. Fragmentation of the distribution caused by global cooling in the late Tertiary resulted in the current disjunction. The diversification rate of hickories in eastern North America appeared to be higher than that in eastern Asia, which is ascribed to greater ecological opportunities, key morphological innovations, and polyploidy.

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Ancestral area reconstructions for Carya using DIVA.A: Inference with fossil taxa; B: Inference without fossil taxa. Fossil taxa are indicated by cross symbols after their names. The areas of endemism are defined for both analyses: A, North America; B, Europe; C, Asia.
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pone-0070449-g003: Ancestral area reconstructions for Carya using DIVA.A: Inference with fossil taxa; B: Inference without fossil taxa. Fossil taxa are indicated by cross symbols after their names. The areas of endemism are defined for both analyses: A, North America; B, Europe; C, Asia.

Mentions: The placements of extinct genera are resolved in our analysis (Figures 3A and 4A). Three extinct genera, Paleooreomunnea, Palaeocarya, and Paraengelhardia form a clade, sister to the extant Alfaroa-Oreomunnea clade. The extinct Paleoplatycarya and the extant Platycarya form a clade, which is sister to the extinct Hooleya. The extinct Cruciptera is sister to the clade containing extant Juglans and Pterocarya. The extinct Polyptera and the extant Carya are in a clade.


Integrated fossil and molecular data reveal the biogeographic diversification of the eastern Asian-eastern North American disjunct hickory genus (Carya Nutt.).

Zhang JB, Li RQ, Xiang XG, Manchester SR, Lin L, Wang W, Wen J, Chen ZD - PLoS ONE (2013)

Ancestral area reconstructions for Carya using DIVA.A: Inference with fossil taxa; B: Inference without fossil taxa. Fossil taxa are indicated by cross symbols after their names. The areas of endemism are defined for both analyses: A, North America; B, Europe; C, Asia.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3713062&req=5

pone-0070449-g003: Ancestral area reconstructions for Carya using DIVA.A: Inference with fossil taxa; B: Inference without fossil taxa. Fossil taxa are indicated by cross symbols after their names. The areas of endemism are defined for both analyses: A, North America; B, Europe; C, Asia.
Mentions: The placements of extinct genera are resolved in our analysis (Figures 3A and 4A). Three extinct genera, Paleooreomunnea, Palaeocarya, and Paraengelhardia form a clade, sister to the extant Alfaroa-Oreomunnea clade. The extinct Paleoplatycarya and the extant Platycarya form a clade, which is sister to the extinct Hooleya. The extinct Cruciptera is sister to the clade containing extant Juglans and Pterocarya. The extinct Polyptera and the extant Carya are in a clade.

Bottom Line: Our results support two major clades within Carya, corresponding to the lineages of eastern Asia and eastern North America.The split between the two disjunct clades is estimated to be 21.58 (95% HPD 11.07-35.51) Ma.The diversification rate of hickories in eastern North America appeared to be higher than that in eastern Asia, which is ascribed to greater ecological opportunities, key morphological innovations, and polyploidy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
The hickory genus (Carya) contains ca. 17 species distributed in subtropical and tropical regions of eastern Asia and subtropical to temperate regions of eastern North America. Previously, the phylogenetic relationships between eastern Asian and eastern North American species of Carya were not fully confirmed even with an extensive sampling, biogeographic and diversification patterns had thus never been investigated in a phylogenetic context. We sampled 17 species of Carya and 15 species representing all other genera of the Juglandaceae as outgroups, with eight nuclear and plastid loci to reconstruct the phylogeny of Carya. The phylogenetic positions of seven extinct genera of the Juglandaceae were inferred using morphological characters and the molecular phylogeny as a backbone constraint. Divergence times within Carya were estimated with relaxed Bayesian dating. Biogeographic analyses were performed in DIVA and LAGRANGE. Diversification rates were inferred by LASER and APE packages. Our results support two major clades within Carya, corresponding to the lineages of eastern Asia and eastern North America. The split between the two disjunct clades is estimated to be 21.58 (95% HPD 11.07-35.51) Ma. Genus-level DIVA and LAGRANGE analyses incorporating both extant and extinct genera of the Juglandaceae suggested that Carya originated in North America, and migrated to Eurasia during the early Tertiary via the North Atlantic land bridge. Fragmentation of the distribution caused by global cooling in the late Tertiary resulted in the current disjunction. The diversification rate of hickories in eastern North America appeared to be higher than that in eastern Asia, which is ascribed to greater ecological opportunities, key morphological innovations, and polyploidy.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus