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Comparison of platelet ultrastructure and elastic properties in thrombo-embolic ischemic stroke and smoking using atomic force and scanning electron microscopy.

Du Plooy JN, Buys A, Duim W, Pretorius E - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: Thrombo-embolic ischemic stroke is a serious and debilitating disease, and it remains the second most common cause of death worldwide.Tobacco smoke exposure continues to be responsible for preventable deaths around the world, and is a major risk factor for stroke.We conclude by suggesting that the combined AFM and SEM analyses of platelets might give valuable information about the disease status of patients.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.

ABSTRACT
Thrombo-embolic ischemic stroke is a serious and debilitating disease, and it remains the second most common cause of death worldwide. Tobacco smoke exposure continues to be responsible for preventable deaths around the world, and is a major risk factor for stroke. Platelets play a fundamental role in clotting, and their pathophysiological functioning is present in smokers and stroke patients, resulting in a pro-thrombotic state. In the current manuscript, atomic force and scanning electron microscopy were used to compare the platelets of smokers, stroke patients and healthy individuals. Results showed that the elastic modulus of stroke platelets is decreased by up to 40%, whereas there is an elasticity decrease of up to 20% in smokers' platelets. This indicates a biophysical alteration of the platelets. Ultrastructurally, both the stroke patients and smokers' platelets are more activated than the healthy control group, with prominent cytoskeletal rearrangement involved; but to a more severe extent in the stroke group than in the smokers. Importantly, this is a confirmation of the extent of smoking as risk factor for stroke. We conclude by suggesting that the combined AFM and SEM analyses of platelets might give valuable information about the disease status of patients. Efficacy of treatment regimes on the integrity, cell shape, roughness and health status of platelets may be tracked, as this cell's health status is crucial in the over-activated coagulation system of conditions like stroke.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Force-Distance curves obtained on control platelets (blue), stroke platelets (red) and cigarette smoke platelets (green).Force-Distance curves show the AFM cantilelver deflection range on the platelet surface. The deflection is the most in healthy platelets.
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pone-0069774-g002: Force-Distance curves obtained on control platelets (blue), stroke platelets (red) and cigarette smoke platelets (green).Force-Distance curves show the AFM cantilelver deflection range on the platelet surface. The deflection is the most in healthy platelets.

Mentions: Figure 1 illustrates these findings, by showing a graph of the frequency distribution of Young’s moduli obtained from the different groups. All the groups presented with a relatively normal distribution shape, is roughly centred on the average modulus values, and also seen in Table 1. However, interestingly with increasing softness (control>cigarette smoke>stroke) the range of moduli decreases, which suggest that the total platelet population is affected. Figure 2 gives representative examples of force distance curves, recorded using control platelets (blue), stroke platelets (red) and cigarette smoke platelets (green). The curves consist of two main regions; the flat region, where the tip is not yet touching the specimen and the sloped region where the tip comes into contact with, and therefore applies a force to the cell. The tip will deform the cells to different extents, depending on the stiffness of the sample; softer samples will deform more easily, therefore presenting with a less linear shape, and a smaller slope, due to the increased cell compliance. As can be seen in Figure 2 the healthy platelet present with a linear shaped curve and a sharp incline, whereas the curve of the stroke and cigarette smoke platelets becomes increasingly non-linear, with less of an gradient.


Comparison of platelet ultrastructure and elastic properties in thrombo-embolic ischemic stroke and smoking using atomic force and scanning electron microscopy.

Du Plooy JN, Buys A, Duim W, Pretorius E - PLoS ONE (2013)

Force-Distance curves obtained on control platelets (blue), stroke platelets (red) and cigarette smoke platelets (green).Force-Distance curves show the AFM cantilelver deflection range on the platelet surface. The deflection is the most in healthy platelets.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3713049&req=5

pone-0069774-g002: Force-Distance curves obtained on control platelets (blue), stroke platelets (red) and cigarette smoke platelets (green).Force-Distance curves show the AFM cantilelver deflection range on the platelet surface. The deflection is the most in healthy platelets.
Mentions: Figure 1 illustrates these findings, by showing a graph of the frequency distribution of Young’s moduli obtained from the different groups. All the groups presented with a relatively normal distribution shape, is roughly centred on the average modulus values, and also seen in Table 1. However, interestingly with increasing softness (control>cigarette smoke>stroke) the range of moduli decreases, which suggest that the total platelet population is affected. Figure 2 gives representative examples of force distance curves, recorded using control platelets (blue), stroke platelets (red) and cigarette smoke platelets (green). The curves consist of two main regions; the flat region, where the tip is not yet touching the specimen and the sloped region where the tip comes into contact with, and therefore applies a force to the cell. The tip will deform the cells to different extents, depending on the stiffness of the sample; softer samples will deform more easily, therefore presenting with a less linear shape, and a smaller slope, due to the increased cell compliance. As can be seen in Figure 2 the healthy platelet present with a linear shaped curve and a sharp incline, whereas the curve of the stroke and cigarette smoke platelets becomes increasingly non-linear, with less of an gradient.

Bottom Line: Thrombo-embolic ischemic stroke is a serious and debilitating disease, and it remains the second most common cause of death worldwide.Tobacco smoke exposure continues to be responsible for preventable deaths around the world, and is a major risk factor for stroke.We conclude by suggesting that the combined AFM and SEM analyses of platelets might give valuable information about the disease status of patients.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.

ABSTRACT
Thrombo-embolic ischemic stroke is a serious and debilitating disease, and it remains the second most common cause of death worldwide. Tobacco smoke exposure continues to be responsible for preventable deaths around the world, and is a major risk factor for stroke. Platelets play a fundamental role in clotting, and their pathophysiological functioning is present in smokers and stroke patients, resulting in a pro-thrombotic state. In the current manuscript, atomic force and scanning electron microscopy were used to compare the platelets of smokers, stroke patients and healthy individuals. Results showed that the elastic modulus of stroke platelets is decreased by up to 40%, whereas there is an elasticity decrease of up to 20% in smokers' platelets. This indicates a biophysical alteration of the platelets. Ultrastructurally, both the stroke patients and smokers' platelets are more activated than the healthy control group, with prominent cytoskeletal rearrangement involved; but to a more severe extent in the stroke group than in the smokers. Importantly, this is a confirmation of the extent of smoking as risk factor for stroke. We conclude by suggesting that the combined AFM and SEM analyses of platelets might give valuable information about the disease status of patients. Efficacy of treatment regimes on the integrity, cell shape, roughness and health status of platelets may be tracked, as this cell's health status is crucial in the over-activated coagulation system of conditions like stroke.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus