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FlyNap (triethylamine) increases the heart rate of mosquitoes and eliminates the cardioacceleratory effect of the neuropeptide CCAP.

Chen W, Hillyer JF - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: Furthermore, exposure to FlyNap eliminated the cardioacceleratory effect of crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP), and reduced a mosquito's ability to survive a bacterial infection.Moreover, these data also illustrate the intricate biology of the insect heart.Specifically, they confirm that the neurohormone CCAP modulates heart rhythms and that it serves as an anterograde pacemaker.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
FlyNap (triethylamine) is commonly used to anesthetize Drosophila melanogaster fruit flies. The purpose of this study was to determine whether triethylamine is a suitable anesthetic agent for research into circulatory physiology and immune competence in the mosquito, Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae). Recovery experiments showed that mosquitoes awaken from traditional cold anesthesia in less than 7 minutes, but that recovery from FlyNap anesthesia does not begin for several hours. Relative to cold anesthesia, moderate exposures to FlyNap induce an increase in the heart rate, a decrease in the percentage of the time the heart contracts in the anterograde direction, and a decrease in the frequency of heartbeat directional reversals. Experiments employing various combinations of cold and FlyNap anesthesia then showed that cold exposure does not affect basal heart physiology, and that the differences seen between the cold and the FlyNap groups are due to a FlyNap-induced alteration of heart physiology. Furthermore, exposure to FlyNap eliminated the cardioacceleratory effect of crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP), and reduced a mosquito's ability to survive a bacterial infection. Together, these data show that FlyNap is not a suitable substitute to cold anesthesia in experiments assessing mosquito heart function or immune competence. Moreover, these data also illustrate the intricate biology of the insect heart. Specifically, they confirm that the neurohormone CCAP modulates heart rhythms and that it serves as an anterograde pacemaker.

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Heart physiology following cold or FlyNap anesthesia.Five groups were assayed: cold anesthesia, and 10 sec, 30 sec, 1 min or 5 min exposure to FlyNap (FN). The following heart parameters are reported: (A–C) total, anterograde and retrograde contraction rate; (D) frequency of heartbeat directional reversals; (E–F) percent time contracting in the anterograde and retrograde directions; (G–H) anterograde and retrograde period lengths. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, and when P<0.05 the statistical significances between the individual FlyNap groups and the cold group (Reference group, R) are denoted using asterisks (Tukey’s multiple comparisons post-hoc test: ns, P>0.05; *, P<0.05; **, P<0.01; ***, P<0.001; ****, P<0.0001). The percentages reported above the columns report the percentage difference between that group and the cold (R) group. Bars denote the standard error of the mean. Sample sizes: Cold, 88; 10 sec FN, 30; 30 sec FN, 20; 1 min FN, 80; 5 min FN, 30.
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pone-0070414-g002: Heart physiology following cold or FlyNap anesthesia.Five groups were assayed: cold anesthesia, and 10 sec, 30 sec, 1 min or 5 min exposure to FlyNap (FN). The following heart parameters are reported: (A–C) total, anterograde and retrograde contraction rate; (D) frequency of heartbeat directional reversals; (E–F) percent time contracting in the anterograde and retrograde directions; (G–H) anterograde and retrograde period lengths. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, and when P<0.05 the statistical significances between the individual FlyNap groups and the cold group (Reference group, R) are denoted using asterisks (Tukey’s multiple comparisons post-hoc test: ns, P>0.05; *, P<0.05; **, P<0.01; ***, P<0.001; ****, P<0.0001). The percentages reported above the columns report the percentage difference between that group and the cold (R) group. Bars denote the standard error of the mean. Sample sizes: Cold, 88; 10 sec FN, 30; 30 sec FN, 20; 1 min FN, 80; 5 min FN, 30.

Mentions: The heart of cold anesthetized mosquitoes contracted at an average rate of 1.92 Hz (Figure 2A). When separated by contraction direction, the heart contracted at 1.87 Hz during anterograde contraction periods (contractions toward the head) and at 1.98 Hz during retrograde contraction periods (contractions toward the posterior of the abdomen; Figure 2B-C). The heart reversed contraction direction an average of 11 times per minute, with the heart spending 67% of the time contracting in the anterograde direction and 33% of the time contracting in the retrograde direction (Figure 2D–F). Finally, the heart spent an average of 8.5 sec contracting anterograde, and following a heartbeat directional reversal, the heart spent an average of 3.92 sec contracting retrograde (Figure 2G-H). These values are in general agreement with our previous data on basal mosquito heart physiology [18–20].


FlyNap (triethylamine) increases the heart rate of mosquitoes and eliminates the cardioacceleratory effect of the neuropeptide CCAP.

Chen W, Hillyer JF - PLoS ONE (2013)

Heart physiology following cold or FlyNap anesthesia.Five groups were assayed: cold anesthesia, and 10 sec, 30 sec, 1 min or 5 min exposure to FlyNap (FN). The following heart parameters are reported: (A–C) total, anterograde and retrograde contraction rate; (D) frequency of heartbeat directional reversals; (E–F) percent time contracting in the anterograde and retrograde directions; (G–H) anterograde and retrograde period lengths. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, and when P<0.05 the statistical significances between the individual FlyNap groups and the cold group (Reference group, R) are denoted using asterisks (Tukey’s multiple comparisons post-hoc test: ns, P>0.05; *, P<0.05; **, P<0.01; ***, P<0.001; ****, P<0.0001). The percentages reported above the columns report the percentage difference between that group and the cold (R) group. Bars denote the standard error of the mean. Sample sizes: Cold, 88; 10 sec FN, 30; 30 sec FN, 20; 1 min FN, 80; 5 min FN, 30.
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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3713048&req=5

pone-0070414-g002: Heart physiology following cold or FlyNap anesthesia.Five groups were assayed: cold anesthesia, and 10 sec, 30 sec, 1 min or 5 min exposure to FlyNap (FN). The following heart parameters are reported: (A–C) total, anterograde and retrograde contraction rate; (D) frequency of heartbeat directional reversals; (E–F) percent time contracting in the anterograde and retrograde directions; (G–H) anterograde and retrograde period lengths. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, and when P<0.05 the statistical significances between the individual FlyNap groups and the cold group (Reference group, R) are denoted using asterisks (Tukey’s multiple comparisons post-hoc test: ns, P>0.05; *, P<0.05; **, P<0.01; ***, P<0.001; ****, P<0.0001). The percentages reported above the columns report the percentage difference between that group and the cold (R) group. Bars denote the standard error of the mean. Sample sizes: Cold, 88; 10 sec FN, 30; 30 sec FN, 20; 1 min FN, 80; 5 min FN, 30.
Mentions: The heart of cold anesthetized mosquitoes contracted at an average rate of 1.92 Hz (Figure 2A). When separated by contraction direction, the heart contracted at 1.87 Hz during anterograde contraction periods (contractions toward the head) and at 1.98 Hz during retrograde contraction periods (contractions toward the posterior of the abdomen; Figure 2B-C). The heart reversed contraction direction an average of 11 times per minute, with the heart spending 67% of the time contracting in the anterograde direction and 33% of the time contracting in the retrograde direction (Figure 2D–F). Finally, the heart spent an average of 8.5 sec contracting anterograde, and following a heartbeat directional reversal, the heart spent an average of 3.92 sec contracting retrograde (Figure 2G-H). These values are in general agreement with our previous data on basal mosquito heart physiology [18–20].

Bottom Line: Furthermore, exposure to FlyNap eliminated the cardioacceleratory effect of crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP), and reduced a mosquito's ability to survive a bacterial infection.Moreover, these data also illustrate the intricate biology of the insect heart.Specifically, they confirm that the neurohormone CCAP modulates heart rhythms and that it serves as an anterograde pacemaker.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
FlyNap (triethylamine) is commonly used to anesthetize Drosophila melanogaster fruit flies. The purpose of this study was to determine whether triethylamine is a suitable anesthetic agent for research into circulatory physiology and immune competence in the mosquito, Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae). Recovery experiments showed that mosquitoes awaken from traditional cold anesthesia in less than 7 minutes, but that recovery from FlyNap anesthesia does not begin for several hours. Relative to cold anesthesia, moderate exposures to FlyNap induce an increase in the heart rate, a decrease in the percentage of the time the heart contracts in the anterograde direction, and a decrease in the frequency of heartbeat directional reversals. Experiments employing various combinations of cold and FlyNap anesthesia then showed that cold exposure does not affect basal heart physiology, and that the differences seen between the cold and the FlyNap groups are due to a FlyNap-induced alteration of heart physiology. Furthermore, exposure to FlyNap eliminated the cardioacceleratory effect of crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP), and reduced a mosquito's ability to survive a bacterial infection. Together, these data show that FlyNap is not a suitable substitute to cold anesthesia in experiments assessing mosquito heart function or immune competence. Moreover, these data also illustrate the intricate biology of the insect heart. Specifically, they confirm that the neurohormone CCAP modulates heart rhythms and that it serves as an anterograde pacemaker.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus