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Proton radiography peers into metal solidification.

Clarke A, Imhoff S, Gibbs P, Cooley J, Morris C, Merrill F, Hollander B, Mariam F, Ott T, Barker M, Tucker T, Lee WK, Fezzaa K, Deriy A, Patterson B, Clarke K, Montalvo J, Field R, Thoma D, Smith J, Teter D - Sci Rep (2013)

Bottom Line: Understanding the link between processing and structure is important because structure profoundly affects the properties of engineering materials.We also show complementary x-ray results from a small volume (<1 mm(3)), bridging four orders of magnitude.Real-time imaging will enable efficient process development and the control of structure evolution to make materials with intended properties; it will also permit the development of experimentally informed, predictive structure and process models.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA. aclarke@lanl.gov

ABSTRACT
Historically, metals are cut up and polished to see the structure and to infer how processing influences the evolution. We can now peer into a metal during processing without destroying it using proton radiography. Understanding the link between processing and structure is important because structure profoundly affects the properties of engineering materials. Synchrotron x-ray radiography has enabled real-time glimpses into metal solidification. However, x-ray energies favor the examination of small volumes and low density metals. Here we use high energy proton radiography for the first time to image a large metal volume (>10,000 mm(3)) during melting and solidification. We also show complementary x-ray results from a small volume (<1 mm(3)), bridging four orders of magnitude. Real-time imaging will enable efficient process development and the control of structure evolution to make materials with intended properties; it will also permit the development of experimentally informed, predictive structure and process models.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Equilibrium phase diagram for the Al-In alloy system40 that undergoes the monotectic reaction L → AlS + L2 (denoted in blue) at the temperature 636.5 °C. Two immiscible liquids, L1 + L2 (denoted in red), co-exist over a range of temperatures and compositions.The nominal alloy composition, Al-10 at.% In, studied here is highlighted by the green dashed line.
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f1: Equilibrium phase diagram for the Al-In alloy system40 that undergoes the monotectic reaction L → AlS + L2 (denoted in blue) at the temperature 636.5 °C. Two immiscible liquids, L1 + L2 (denoted in red), co-exist over a range of temperatures and compositions.The nominal alloy composition, Al-10 at.% In, studied here is highlighted by the green dashed line.

Mentions: Here we present the results of melting and solidification experiments in the Al-In alloy system. An ambient pressure, equilibrium phase diagram40 is provided in Figure 1. At the alloy composition Al-4.7 at.% In, the monotectic reaction L → AlS + L2 occurs at 636.5 °C. For hypermonotectic alloy compositions (above 4.7 at.% In), a range of compositions and temperatures exist where two immiscible liquids, L1 + L2, co-exist. This region of the phase diagram is known as a miscibility gap. We selected a hypermonotectic Al-10 at.% In alloy composition for our in-situ characterization of metallic alloy melting and solidification, with the intent of creating a fraction of indium-rich (In-rich) L2 liquid droplets distinguishable from the majority aluminum-rich (Al-rich) L1 liquid phase at elevated temperatures. Given the density difference between these two immiscible liquid phases41, sufficient contrast is available for the study of L1/L2 fluid flow using radiography. Monitoring of the solid-liquid interface is also possible.


Proton radiography peers into metal solidification.

Clarke A, Imhoff S, Gibbs P, Cooley J, Morris C, Merrill F, Hollander B, Mariam F, Ott T, Barker M, Tucker T, Lee WK, Fezzaa K, Deriy A, Patterson B, Clarke K, Montalvo J, Field R, Thoma D, Smith J, Teter D - Sci Rep (2013)

Equilibrium phase diagram for the Al-In alloy system40 that undergoes the monotectic reaction L → AlS + L2 (denoted in blue) at the temperature 636.5 °C. Two immiscible liquids, L1 + L2 (denoted in red), co-exist over a range of temperatures and compositions.The nominal alloy composition, Al-10 at.% In, studied here is highlighted by the green dashed line.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3686777&req=5

f1: Equilibrium phase diagram for the Al-In alloy system40 that undergoes the monotectic reaction L → AlS + L2 (denoted in blue) at the temperature 636.5 °C. Two immiscible liquids, L1 + L2 (denoted in red), co-exist over a range of temperatures and compositions.The nominal alloy composition, Al-10 at.% In, studied here is highlighted by the green dashed line.
Mentions: Here we present the results of melting and solidification experiments in the Al-In alloy system. An ambient pressure, equilibrium phase diagram40 is provided in Figure 1. At the alloy composition Al-4.7 at.% In, the monotectic reaction L → AlS + L2 occurs at 636.5 °C. For hypermonotectic alloy compositions (above 4.7 at.% In), a range of compositions and temperatures exist where two immiscible liquids, L1 + L2, co-exist. This region of the phase diagram is known as a miscibility gap. We selected a hypermonotectic Al-10 at.% In alloy composition for our in-situ characterization of metallic alloy melting and solidification, with the intent of creating a fraction of indium-rich (In-rich) L2 liquid droplets distinguishable from the majority aluminum-rich (Al-rich) L1 liquid phase at elevated temperatures. Given the density difference between these two immiscible liquid phases41, sufficient contrast is available for the study of L1/L2 fluid flow using radiography. Monitoring of the solid-liquid interface is also possible.

Bottom Line: Understanding the link between processing and structure is important because structure profoundly affects the properties of engineering materials.We also show complementary x-ray results from a small volume (<1 mm(3)), bridging four orders of magnitude.Real-time imaging will enable efficient process development and the control of structure evolution to make materials with intended properties; it will also permit the development of experimentally informed, predictive structure and process models.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA. aclarke@lanl.gov

ABSTRACT
Historically, metals are cut up and polished to see the structure and to infer how processing influences the evolution. We can now peer into a metal during processing without destroying it using proton radiography. Understanding the link between processing and structure is important because structure profoundly affects the properties of engineering materials. Synchrotron x-ray radiography has enabled real-time glimpses into metal solidification. However, x-ray energies favor the examination of small volumes and low density metals. Here we use high energy proton radiography for the first time to image a large metal volume (>10,000 mm(3)) during melting and solidification. We also show complementary x-ray results from a small volume (<1 mm(3)), bridging four orders of magnitude. Real-time imaging will enable efficient process development and the control of structure evolution to make materials with intended properties; it will also permit the development of experimentally informed, predictive structure and process models.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus