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Acetylation of Chromatin-Associated Histone H3 Lysine 56 Inhibits the Development of Encysted Artemia Embryos.

Zhou R, Yang F, Chen DF, Sun YX, Yang JS, Yang WJ - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: We found that the level of H3K56ac on chromatin increased during diapause formation, and decreased upon diapause termination, remaining basal level throughout subsequent embryonic development.Furthermore, we found that this arrest of the cell cycle and development was induced by H3K56ac and dephosphorylation of the checkpoint protein, retinoblastoma protein.These results have revealed the dynamic change in H3K56ac on chromatin during artemia diapause formation and termination.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education and College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People's Republic of China.

ABSTRACT

Background: As a response to harsh environments, the crustacean artemia produces diapause gastrula embryos (cysts), in which cell division and embryonic development are totally arrested. This dormant state can last for very long periods but be terminated by specific environmental stimuli. Thus, artemia is an ideal model organism in which to study cell cycle arrest and embryonic development.

Principal finding: Our study focuses on the roles of H3K56ac in the arrest of cell cycle and development during artemia diapause formation and termination. We found that the level of H3K56ac on chromatin increased during diapause formation, and decreased upon diapause termination, remaining basal level throughout subsequent embryonic development. In both HeLa cells and artemia, blocking the deacetylation with nicotinamide, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, increased the level of H3K56ac on chromatin and induced an artificial cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, we found that this arrest of the cell cycle and development was induced by H3K56ac and dephosphorylation of the checkpoint protein, retinoblastoma protein.

Conclusions/significance: These results have revealed the dynamic change in H3K56ac on chromatin during artemia diapause formation and termination. Thus, our findings provide insight into the regulation of cell division during arrest of artemia embryonic development and provide further insight into the functions of H3K56ac.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Cell cycle arrest in Artemia diapause embryos.1–3 and 1’–3’ represent three embryonic developmental stages in ovoviviparous and oviparous pathway, respectively. 1 and 1’, early embryo (two days after the eggs entering into the ovisac); 2 and 2’, late embryo (four days after the eggs entering into the ovisac); 3, nauplius; 3’, diapause embryo. (A) Morphology of Artemia adults with embryos in the ovisac. (B) BrdU incorporation assay (upper panel) and corresponding DAPI staining (lower panel) with embryos or nauplius of the two reproduction pathways. Black arrows indicated the representative positive signal. (C) Western blotting analysis of cell division-related molecules at each stage of ovoviviparous and oviparous reproduction pathways. Tubulin was used as a loading control for the whole protein extracts, and H3 used as a loading control for the total histones.
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pone-0068374-g001: Cell cycle arrest in Artemia diapause embryos.1–3 and 1’–3’ represent three embryonic developmental stages in ovoviviparous and oviparous pathway, respectively. 1 and 1’, early embryo (two days after the eggs entering into the ovisac); 2 and 2’, late embryo (four days after the eggs entering into the ovisac); 3, nauplius; 3’, diapause embryo. (A) Morphology of Artemia adults with embryos in the ovisac. (B) BrdU incorporation assay (upper panel) and corresponding DAPI staining (lower panel) with embryos or nauplius of the two reproduction pathways. Black arrows indicated the representative positive signal. (C) Western blotting analysis of cell division-related molecules at each stage of ovoviviparous and oviparous reproduction pathways. Tubulin was used as a loading control for the whole protein extracts, and H3 used as a loading control for the total histones.

Mentions: Artemia has two modes of reproduction: ovoviviparous and oviparous. In the ovoviviparous pathway, oocytes formed in the ovary and matured in the oviduct in the early and late oocyte stages, respectively. Embryos then entered the ovisac (uterus) and finally released into the environment as nauplius larvae. In the oviparous pathway, embryos in the ovisac are covered with a chitinous shell, and released into the environment as encysted diapause embryos. To compare these two reproductive modes, the stages of embryonic development of each pathway were studied (Figure 1A).


Acetylation of Chromatin-Associated Histone H3 Lysine 56 Inhibits the Development of Encysted Artemia Embryos.

Zhou R, Yang F, Chen DF, Sun YX, Yang JS, Yang WJ - PLoS ONE (2013)

Cell cycle arrest in Artemia diapause embryos.1–3 and 1’–3’ represent three embryonic developmental stages in ovoviviparous and oviparous pathway, respectively. 1 and 1’, early embryo (two days after the eggs entering into the ovisac); 2 and 2’, late embryo (four days after the eggs entering into the ovisac); 3, nauplius; 3’, diapause embryo. (A) Morphology of Artemia adults with embryos in the ovisac. (B) BrdU incorporation assay (upper panel) and corresponding DAPI staining (lower panel) with embryos or nauplius of the two reproduction pathways. Black arrows indicated the representative positive signal. (C) Western blotting analysis of cell division-related molecules at each stage of ovoviviparous and oviparous reproduction pathways. Tubulin was used as a loading control for the whole protein extracts, and H3 used as a loading control for the total histones.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3686719&req=5

pone-0068374-g001: Cell cycle arrest in Artemia diapause embryos.1–3 and 1’–3’ represent three embryonic developmental stages in ovoviviparous and oviparous pathway, respectively. 1 and 1’, early embryo (two days after the eggs entering into the ovisac); 2 and 2’, late embryo (four days after the eggs entering into the ovisac); 3, nauplius; 3’, diapause embryo. (A) Morphology of Artemia adults with embryos in the ovisac. (B) BrdU incorporation assay (upper panel) and corresponding DAPI staining (lower panel) with embryos or nauplius of the two reproduction pathways. Black arrows indicated the representative positive signal. (C) Western blotting analysis of cell division-related molecules at each stage of ovoviviparous and oviparous reproduction pathways. Tubulin was used as a loading control for the whole protein extracts, and H3 used as a loading control for the total histones.
Mentions: Artemia has two modes of reproduction: ovoviviparous and oviparous. In the ovoviviparous pathway, oocytes formed in the ovary and matured in the oviduct in the early and late oocyte stages, respectively. Embryos then entered the ovisac (uterus) and finally released into the environment as nauplius larvae. In the oviparous pathway, embryos in the ovisac are covered with a chitinous shell, and released into the environment as encysted diapause embryos. To compare these two reproductive modes, the stages of embryonic development of each pathway were studied (Figure 1A).

Bottom Line: We found that the level of H3K56ac on chromatin increased during diapause formation, and decreased upon diapause termination, remaining basal level throughout subsequent embryonic development.Furthermore, we found that this arrest of the cell cycle and development was induced by H3K56ac and dephosphorylation of the checkpoint protein, retinoblastoma protein.These results have revealed the dynamic change in H3K56ac on chromatin during artemia diapause formation and termination.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education and College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People's Republic of China.

ABSTRACT

Background: As a response to harsh environments, the crustacean artemia produces diapause gastrula embryos (cysts), in which cell division and embryonic development are totally arrested. This dormant state can last for very long periods but be terminated by specific environmental stimuli. Thus, artemia is an ideal model organism in which to study cell cycle arrest and embryonic development.

Principal finding: Our study focuses on the roles of H3K56ac in the arrest of cell cycle and development during artemia diapause formation and termination. We found that the level of H3K56ac on chromatin increased during diapause formation, and decreased upon diapause termination, remaining basal level throughout subsequent embryonic development. In both HeLa cells and artemia, blocking the deacetylation with nicotinamide, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, increased the level of H3K56ac on chromatin and induced an artificial cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, we found that this arrest of the cell cycle and development was induced by H3K56ac and dephosphorylation of the checkpoint protein, retinoblastoma protein.

Conclusions/significance: These results have revealed the dynamic change in H3K56ac on chromatin during artemia diapause formation and termination. Thus, our findings provide insight into the regulation of cell division during arrest of artemia embryonic development and provide further insight into the functions of H3K56ac.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus