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Targeting the redox balance in inflammatory skin conditions.

Wagener FA, Carels CE, Lundvig DM - Int J Mol Sci (2013)

Bottom Line: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be both beneficial and deleterious.Due to the central role of ROS in inflammatory pathologies, restoring the redox balance forms an innovative therapeutic target in the development of new strategies for treating inflammatory skin conditions.Nevertheless, the clinical use of antioxidant-related therapies is still in its infancy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics and Craniofacial Biology, Nijmegen Centre for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands. f.wagener@dent.umcn.nl.

ABSTRACT
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be both beneficial and deleterious. Under normal physiological conditions, ROS production is tightly regulated, and ROS participate in both pathogen defense and cellular signaling. However, insufficient ROS detoxification or ROS overproduction generates oxidative stress, resulting in cellular damage. Oxidative stress has been linked to various inflammatory diseases. Inflammation is an essential response in the protection against injurious insults and thus important at the onset of wound healing. However, hampered resolution of inflammation can result in a chronic, exaggerated response with additional tissue damage. In the pathogenesis of several inflammatory skin conditions, e.g., sunburn and psoriasis, inflammatory-mediated tissue damage is central. The prolonged release of excess ROS in the skin can aggravate inflammatory injury and promote chronic inflammation. The cellular redox balance is therefore tightly regulated by several (enzymatic) antioxidants and pro-oxidants; however, in case of chronic inflammation, the antioxidant system may be depleted, and prolonged oxidative stress occurs. Due to the central role of ROS in inflammatory pathologies, restoring the redox balance forms an innovative therapeutic target in the development of new strategies for treating inflammatory skin conditions. Nevertheless, the clinical use of antioxidant-related therapies is still in its infancy.

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Redox balance maintenance in skin. ROS in the skin originate from normal cellular metabolism, e.g., mitochondrial respiration, and enzymatic activity. Besides, exogenous ROS are generated following physical insults, like UV light or persistent presence of leukocytes, facilitating chronic inflammatory skin conditions. To regulate ROS levels, the skin is rich in enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems, thereby maintaining physiological homeostasis. In addition to the classical antioxidant defense, the cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase exhibits antioxidant properties via its degradation of pro-oxidant heme and generation of its antioxidant effector molecule bilirubin.
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f1-ijms-14-09126: Redox balance maintenance in skin. ROS in the skin originate from normal cellular metabolism, e.g., mitochondrial respiration, and enzymatic activity. Besides, exogenous ROS are generated following physical insults, like UV light or persistent presence of leukocytes, facilitating chronic inflammatory skin conditions. To regulate ROS levels, the skin is rich in enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems, thereby maintaining physiological homeostasis. In addition to the classical antioxidant defense, the cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase exhibits antioxidant properties via its degradation of pro-oxidant heme and generation of its antioxidant effector molecule bilirubin.

Mentions: Free radicals are formed in the skin following exposure to environmental stimuli and immune reactions. In addition, ROS generation in skin occurs naturally as part of normal cellular metabolism, like mitochondrial respiration. These ROS are normally rapidly neutralized by non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants, thereby maintaining the oxidant/antioxidant balance and thus tissue homeostasis [101] (Figure 1).


Targeting the redox balance in inflammatory skin conditions.

Wagener FA, Carels CE, Lundvig DM - Int J Mol Sci (2013)

Redox balance maintenance in skin. ROS in the skin originate from normal cellular metabolism, e.g., mitochondrial respiration, and enzymatic activity. Besides, exogenous ROS are generated following physical insults, like UV light or persistent presence of leukocytes, facilitating chronic inflammatory skin conditions. To regulate ROS levels, the skin is rich in enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems, thereby maintaining physiological homeostasis. In addition to the classical antioxidant defense, the cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase exhibits antioxidant properties via its degradation of pro-oxidant heme and generation of its antioxidant effector molecule bilirubin.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3676777&req=5

f1-ijms-14-09126: Redox balance maintenance in skin. ROS in the skin originate from normal cellular metabolism, e.g., mitochondrial respiration, and enzymatic activity. Besides, exogenous ROS are generated following physical insults, like UV light or persistent presence of leukocytes, facilitating chronic inflammatory skin conditions. To regulate ROS levels, the skin is rich in enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems, thereby maintaining physiological homeostasis. In addition to the classical antioxidant defense, the cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase exhibits antioxidant properties via its degradation of pro-oxidant heme and generation of its antioxidant effector molecule bilirubin.
Mentions: Free radicals are formed in the skin following exposure to environmental stimuli and immune reactions. In addition, ROS generation in skin occurs naturally as part of normal cellular metabolism, like mitochondrial respiration. These ROS are normally rapidly neutralized by non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants, thereby maintaining the oxidant/antioxidant balance and thus tissue homeostasis [101] (Figure 1).

Bottom Line: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be both beneficial and deleterious.Due to the central role of ROS in inflammatory pathologies, restoring the redox balance forms an innovative therapeutic target in the development of new strategies for treating inflammatory skin conditions.Nevertheless, the clinical use of antioxidant-related therapies is still in its infancy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Orthodontics and Craniofacial Biology, Nijmegen Centre for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands. f.wagener@dent.umcn.nl.

ABSTRACT
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be both beneficial and deleterious. Under normal physiological conditions, ROS production is tightly regulated, and ROS participate in both pathogen defense and cellular signaling. However, insufficient ROS detoxification or ROS overproduction generates oxidative stress, resulting in cellular damage. Oxidative stress has been linked to various inflammatory diseases. Inflammation is an essential response in the protection against injurious insults and thus important at the onset of wound healing. However, hampered resolution of inflammation can result in a chronic, exaggerated response with additional tissue damage. In the pathogenesis of several inflammatory skin conditions, e.g., sunburn and psoriasis, inflammatory-mediated tissue damage is central. The prolonged release of excess ROS in the skin can aggravate inflammatory injury and promote chronic inflammation. The cellular redox balance is therefore tightly regulated by several (enzymatic) antioxidants and pro-oxidants; however, in case of chronic inflammation, the antioxidant system may be depleted, and prolonged oxidative stress occurs. Due to the central role of ROS in inflammatory pathologies, restoring the redox balance forms an innovative therapeutic target in the development of new strategies for treating inflammatory skin conditions. Nevertheless, the clinical use of antioxidant-related therapies is still in its infancy.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus