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Mitochondrial genetics.

Chinnery PF, Hudson G - Br. Med. Bull. (2013)

Bottom Line: In the last 10 years the field of mitochondrial genetics has widened, shifting the focus from rare sporadic, metabolic disease to the effects of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in a growing spectrum of human disease.The exact mechanisms which govern the inheritance of mtDNA are hotly debated.Although still in the early stages, the development of in vitro genetic manipulation could see an end to the inheritance of the most severe mtDNA disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: International Centre for Life, Newcastle University, Central Parkway, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In the last 10 years the field of mitochondrial genetics has widened, shifting the focus from rare sporadic, metabolic disease to the effects of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in a growing spectrum of human disease. The aim of this review is to guide the reader through some key concepts regarding mitochondria before introducing both classic and emerging mitochondrial disorders.

Sources of data: In this article, a review of the current mitochondrial genetics literature was conducted using PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/). In addition, this review makes use of a growing number of publically available databases including MITOMAP, a human mitochondrial genome database (www.mitomap.org), the Human DNA polymerase Gamma Mutation Database (http://tools.niehs.nih.gov/polg/) and PhyloTree.org (www.phylotree.org), a repository of global mtDNA variation.

Areas of agreement: The disruption in cellular energy, resulting from defects in mtDNA or defects in the nuclear-encoded genes responsible for mitochondrial maintenance, manifests in a growing number of human diseases.

Areas of controversy: The exact mechanisms which govern the inheritance of mtDNA are hotly debated.

Growing points: Although still in the early stages, the development of in vitro genetic manipulation could see an end to the inheritance of the most severe mtDNA disease.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Clinical spectrum of mitochondrial disease. Schematic diagram showing the organ and corresponding disease affected by mitochondrial dysfunction.
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LDT017F3: Clinical spectrum of mitochondrial disease. Schematic diagram showing the organ and corresponding disease affected by mitochondrial dysfunction.

Mentions: An area where all mitochondrial researchers would agree is the capacity for mitochondrial dysfunction to manifest as disease. Mitochondrial disease is principally a chronic loss of cellular energy, where a failure to meet cellular energy demand results in a clinical phenotype. The clinical spectrum of mitochondrial disease is diverse (Fig. 3); however, tissues where there is a high metabolic demand, such as the central nervous system (CNS) or heart, are typically affected.Fig. 3


Mitochondrial genetics.

Chinnery PF, Hudson G - Br. Med. Bull. (2013)

Clinical spectrum of mitochondrial disease. Schematic diagram showing the organ and corresponding disease affected by mitochondrial dysfunction.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3675899&req=5

LDT017F3: Clinical spectrum of mitochondrial disease. Schematic diagram showing the organ and corresponding disease affected by mitochondrial dysfunction.
Mentions: An area where all mitochondrial researchers would agree is the capacity for mitochondrial dysfunction to manifest as disease. Mitochondrial disease is principally a chronic loss of cellular energy, where a failure to meet cellular energy demand results in a clinical phenotype. The clinical spectrum of mitochondrial disease is diverse (Fig. 3); however, tissues where there is a high metabolic demand, such as the central nervous system (CNS) or heart, are typically affected.Fig. 3

Bottom Line: In the last 10 years the field of mitochondrial genetics has widened, shifting the focus from rare sporadic, metabolic disease to the effects of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in a growing spectrum of human disease.The exact mechanisms which govern the inheritance of mtDNA are hotly debated.Although still in the early stages, the development of in vitro genetic manipulation could see an end to the inheritance of the most severe mtDNA disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: International Centre for Life, Newcastle University, Central Parkway, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In the last 10 years the field of mitochondrial genetics has widened, shifting the focus from rare sporadic, metabolic disease to the effects of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in a growing spectrum of human disease. The aim of this review is to guide the reader through some key concepts regarding mitochondria before introducing both classic and emerging mitochondrial disorders.

Sources of data: In this article, a review of the current mitochondrial genetics literature was conducted using PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/). In addition, this review makes use of a growing number of publically available databases including MITOMAP, a human mitochondrial genome database (www.mitomap.org), the Human DNA polymerase Gamma Mutation Database (http://tools.niehs.nih.gov/polg/) and PhyloTree.org (www.phylotree.org), a repository of global mtDNA variation.

Areas of agreement: The disruption in cellular energy, resulting from defects in mtDNA or defects in the nuclear-encoded genes responsible for mitochondrial maintenance, manifests in a growing number of human diseases.

Areas of controversy: The exact mechanisms which govern the inheritance of mtDNA are hotly debated.

Growing points: Although still in the early stages, the development of in vitro genetic manipulation could see an end to the inheritance of the most severe mtDNA disease.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus