Long-term enhancement of brain function and cognition using cognitive training and brain stimulation.
Bottom Line: These behavioral improvements were associated with defined hemodynamic responses consistent with more efficient neurovascular coupling within the left DLPFC.These results demonstrate that, depending on the learning regime, TRNS can induce long-term enhancement of cognitive and brain functions.Such findings have significant implications for basic and translational neuroscience, highlighting TRNS as a viable approach to enhancing learning and high-level cognition by the long-term modulation of neuroplasticity.
Affiliation: Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3UD, UK.Show MeSH
Mentions: For assessment of skill acquisition, it is recommended that calculation and drill learning be modeled by fitting of RT data to a power law function  (Supplemental Experimental Procedures). This modeling allows one to quantify both initial performance (B) and learning rates (α) for each learning regime. For both calculation and drill arithmetic, there were no significant differences between the groups with regard to initial performance, indicating similar proficiency at the beginning of training (p values > 0.27). In contrast, calculation and drill learning rates were significantly higher for the transcranial random noise stimulation (TRNS) group relative to sham controls [calculation, F(1,22) = 6.75, p = 0.016; drill, F(1,22) = 10.24, p = 0.004, using initial performance as a covariate ; Figures 2A and 2B]. This result indicates that TRNS facilitated the speed of learning for both calculation and drill regimes.
Affiliation: Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3UD, UK.