Limits...
Sensing and 3D Mapping of Soil Compaction

View Article: PubMed Central

ABSTRACT

Soil compaction is an important physical limiting factor for the root growth and plant emergence and is one of the major causes for reduced crop yield worldwide. The objective of this study was to generate 2D/3D soil compaction maps for different depth layers of the soil. To do so, a soil penetrometer was designed, which was mounted on the three-point hitch of an agricultural tractor, consisting of a mechanical system, data acquisition system (DAS), and 2D/3D imaging and analysis software. The system was successfully tested in field conditions, measuring soil penetration resistances as a function of depth from 0 to 40 cm at 1 cm intervals. The software allows user to either tabulate the measured quantities or generate maps as soon as data collection has been terminated. The system may also incorporate GPS data to create geo-referenced soil maps. The software enables the user to graph penetration resistances at a specified coordinate. Alternately, soil compaction maps could be generated using data collected from multiple coordinates. The data could be automatically stratified to determine soil compaction distribution at different layers of 5, 10,.…, 40 cm depths. It was concluded that the system tested in this study could be used to assess the soil compaction at topsoil and the randomly distributed hardpan formations just below the common tillage depths, enabling visualization of spatial variability through the imaging software.

No MeSH data available.


Block diagram of DAS.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3675554&req=5

f3-sensors-08-03447: Block diagram of DAS.

Mentions: The DAS was designed to process the signals acquired from the load-cell and depth sensor and to control the mechanical system (Figure 3). Signals taken from the load cell are converted into digital signal through an amplifier, a 50-60 Hz notch filter and a 24 bit sigma-delta ADC. The signals received from depth sensor are filtered from the noises from the tractor and white noise with use of a low-pass filter (LPF). Digital inputs are used for controlling mechanical system able to intervene in emergency situations. Total measurement capacity is designed for 106 sampling data.


Sensing and 3D Mapping of Soil Compaction
Block diagram of DAS.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3675554&req=5

f3-sensors-08-03447: Block diagram of DAS.
Mentions: The DAS was designed to process the signals acquired from the load-cell and depth sensor and to control the mechanical system (Figure 3). Signals taken from the load cell are converted into digital signal through an amplifier, a 50-60 Hz notch filter and a 24 bit sigma-delta ADC. The signals received from depth sensor are filtered from the noises from the tractor and white noise with use of a low-pass filter (LPF). Digital inputs are used for controlling mechanical system able to intervene in emergency situations. Total measurement capacity is designed for 106 sampling data.

View Article: PubMed Central

ABSTRACT

Soil compaction is an important physical limiting factor for the root growth and plant emergence and is one of the major causes for reduced crop yield worldwide. The objective of this study was to generate 2D/3D soil compaction maps for different depth layers of the soil. To do so, a soil penetrometer was designed, which was mounted on the three-point hitch of an agricultural tractor, consisting of a mechanical system, data acquisition system (DAS), and 2D/3D imaging and analysis software. The system was successfully tested in field conditions, measuring soil penetration resistances as a function of depth from 0 to 40 cm at 1 cm intervals. The software allows user to either tabulate the measured quantities or generate maps as soon as data collection has been terminated. The system may also incorporate GPS data to create geo-referenced soil maps. The software enables the user to graph penetration resistances at a specified coordinate. Alternately, soil compaction maps could be generated using data collected from multiple coordinates. The data could be automatically stratified to determine soil compaction distribution at different layers of 5, 10,.…, 40 cm depths. It was concluded that the system tested in this study could be used to assess the soil compaction at topsoil and the randomly distributed hardpan formations just below the common tillage depths, enabling visualization of spatial variability through the imaging software.

No MeSH data available.