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Implantable Microimagers

View Article: PubMed Central

ABSTRACT

Implantable devices such as cardiac pacemakers, drug-delivery systems, and defibrillators have had a tremendous impact on the quality of live for many disabled people. To date, many devices have been developed for implantation into various parts of the human body. In this paper, we focus on devices implanted in the head. In particular, we describe the technologies necessary to create implantable microimagers. Design, fabrication, and implementation issues are discussed vis-à-vis two examples of implantable microimagers; the retinal prosthesis and in vivo neuro-microimager. Testing of these devices in animals verify the use of the microimagers in the implanted state. We believe that further advancement of these devices will lead to the development of a new method for medical and scientific applications.

No MeSH data available.


Simplified cross-section schematic of typical CMOS technology (0.5 - 1 μm) with two-level metal interconnections.
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f4-sensors-08-03183: Simplified cross-section schematic of typical CMOS technology (0.5 - 1 μm) with two-level metal interconnections.

Mentions: A detailed discussion on CMOS process is beyond the scope of this paper. However, for completeness, we review a typical device fabricated using conventional CMOS process. Figure 4 shows the cross-sectional view of a CMOS device. It consists of NMOS and PMOS transistors, and a photodiode. These devices are connected with multiple metal levels. The need for multilevel metal layers is apparent when device size shrinks and device interconnection increases. For a 2D pixel array, the minimum metal interconnection layers needed is two.


Implantable Microimagers
Simplified cross-section schematic of typical CMOS technology (0.5 - 1 μm) with two-level metal interconnections.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3675539&req=5

f4-sensors-08-03183: Simplified cross-section schematic of typical CMOS technology (0.5 - 1 μm) with two-level metal interconnections.
Mentions: A detailed discussion on CMOS process is beyond the scope of this paper. However, for completeness, we review a typical device fabricated using conventional CMOS process. Figure 4 shows the cross-sectional view of a CMOS device. It consists of NMOS and PMOS transistors, and a photodiode. These devices are connected with multiple metal levels. The need for multilevel metal layers is apparent when device size shrinks and device interconnection increases. For a 2D pixel array, the minimum metal interconnection layers needed is two.

View Article: PubMed Central

ABSTRACT

Implantable devices such as cardiac pacemakers, drug-delivery systems, and defibrillators have had a tremendous impact on the quality of live for many disabled people. To date, many devices have been developed for implantation into various parts of the human body. In this paper, we focus on devices implanted in the head. In particular, we describe the technologies necessary to create implantable microimagers. Design, fabrication, and implementation issues are discussed vis-à-vis two examples of implantable microimagers; the retinal prosthesis and in vivo neuro-microimager. Testing of these devices in animals verify the use of the microimagers in the implanted state. We believe that further advancement of these devices will lead to the development of a new method for medical and scientific applications.

No MeSH data available.