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Nanorobot Hardware Architecture for Medical Defense

View Article: PubMed Central

ABSTRACT

This work presents a new approach with details on the integrated platform and hardware architecture for nanorobots application in epidemic control, which should enable real time in vivo prognosis of biohazard infection. The recent developments in the field of nanoelectronics, with transducers progressively shrinking down to smaller sizes through nanotechnology and carbon nanotubes, are expected to result in innovative biomedical instrumentation possibilities, with new therapies and efficient diagnosis methodologies. The use of integrated systems, smart biosensors, and programmable nanodevices are advancing nanoelectronics, enabling the progressive research and development of molecular machines. It should provide high precision pervasive biomedical monitoring with real time data transmission. The use of nanobioelectronics as embedded systems is the natural pathway towards manufacturing methodology to achieve nanorobot applications out of laboratories sooner as possible. To demonstrate the practical application of medical nanorobotics, a 3D simulation based on clinical data addresses how to integrate communication with nanorobots using RFID, mobile phones, and satellites, applied to long distance ubiquitous surveillance and health monitoring for troops in conflict zones. Therefore, the current model can also be used to prevent and save a population against the case of some targeted epidemic disease.

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Nanobiosensor activation.
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f11-sensors-08-02932: Nanobiosensor activation.

Mentions: Carbon nanotubes serve as ideal materials for the basis of a CMOS IC biosensor. In fact, carbon based sensor has been used successfully for in vivo protein detection [108]. Considering the importance of alpha-NAGA against neuroaxonal dystrophy [109], small concentrations of this protein inside body can cause some false positives. Typical concentrations of alpha-NAGA protein are less than 1 nmole/min/106 cells. Normal concentrations of alpha-NAGA in the bloodstream are in average less than 2μl. For a person infected with influenza, alpha-NAGA concentrations from blood sample increases, ranging from 1.26 to 4.63 nmole/min/106 cells [16]. Therefore, if the nanorobot's electrochemical sensor detects alpha-NAGA in low quantities or inside expected gradients, it generates a weak signal lower than 50nA. In such case the nanorobot ignores the alpha-NAGA concentration, assuming it as expected levels of bloodstream concentration. However, if the alpha-NAGA reaches concentration higher than 3μl, it produces a current flow that corresponds to the rate of antigen enzymatic reaction, which generates a current higher than 80nA (Fig. 11), hence activating the nanorobot. Every time it happens (Fig. 12), the nanorobot emits an electromagnetic signal back-propagated for the monitoring integrated platform, which records the cell phone PDA associated with the person identification [107]. This approach can enable the headquarters to automatically identify the person infected with influenza, and send an urgent SMS to multiple recipients. Therefore, the members of a same group can take the necessary action to immediately assist who was infected, avoiding any possible pandemic outbreak.


Nanorobot Hardware Architecture for Medical Defense
Nanobiosensor activation.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3675524&req=5

f11-sensors-08-02932: Nanobiosensor activation.
Mentions: Carbon nanotubes serve as ideal materials for the basis of a CMOS IC biosensor. In fact, carbon based sensor has been used successfully for in vivo protein detection [108]. Considering the importance of alpha-NAGA against neuroaxonal dystrophy [109], small concentrations of this protein inside body can cause some false positives. Typical concentrations of alpha-NAGA protein are less than 1 nmole/min/106 cells. Normal concentrations of alpha-NAGA in the bloodstream are in average less than 2μl. For a person infected with influenza, alpha-NAGA concentrations from blood sample increases, ranging from 1.26 to 4.63 nmole/min/106 cells [16]. Therefore, if the nanorobot's electrochemical sensor detects alpha-NAGA in low quantities or inside expected gradients, it generates a weak signal lower than 50nA. In such case the nanorobot ignores the alpha-NAGA concentration, assuming it as expected levels of bloodstream concentration. However, if the alpha-NAGA reaches concentration higher than 3μl, it produces a current flow that corresponds to the rate of antigen enzymatic reaction, which generates a current higher than 80nA (Fig. 11), hence activating the nanorobot. Every time it happens (Fig. 12), the nanorobot emits an electromagnetic signal back-propagated for the monitoring integrated platform, which records the cell phone PDA associated with the person identification [107]. This approach can enable the headquarters to automatically identify the person infected with influenza, and send an urgent SMS to multiple recipients. Therefore, the members of a same group can take the necessary action to immediately assist who was infected, avoiding any possible pandemic outbreak.

View Article: PubMed Central

ABSTRACT

This work presents a new approach with details on the integrated platform and hardware architecture for nanorobots application in epidemic control, which should enable real time in vivo prognosis of biohazard infection. The recent developments in the field of nanoelectronics, with transducers progressively shrinking down to smaller sizes through nanotechnology and carbon nanotubes, are expected to result in innovative biomedical instrumentation possibilities, with new therapies and efficient diagnosis methodologies. The use of integrated systems, smart biosensors, and programmable nanodevices are advancing nanoelectronics, enabling the progressive research and development of molecular machines. It should provide high precision pervasive biomedical monitoring with real time data transmission. The use of nanobioelectronics as embedded systems is the natural pathway towards manufacturing methodology to achieve nanorobot applications out of laboratories sooner as possible. To demonstrate the practical application of medical nanorobotics, a 3D simulation based on clinical data addresses how to integrate communication with nanorobots using RFID, mobile phones, and satellites, applied to long distance ubiquitous surveillance and health monitoring for troops in conflict zones. Therefore, the current model can also be used to prevent and save a population against the case of some targeted epidemic disease.

No MeSH data available.