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Population dynamics of rhesus macaques and associated foamy virus in Bangladesh.

Feeroz MM, Soliven K, Small CT, Engel GA, Andreina Pacheco M, Yee JL, Wang X, Kamrul Hasan M, Oh G, Levine KL, Rabiul Alam SM, Craig KL, Jackson DL, Lee EG, Barry PA, Lerche NW, Escalante AA, Matsen Iv FA, Linial ML, Jones-Engel L - Emerg Microbes Infect (2013)

Bottom Line: We also found evidence suggesting that humans traveling the region with performing macaques likely play a role in the translocation of macaques and SFV.Our studies found that individual animals can harbor more than one strain of SFV and that presence of more than one SFV strain is more common among older animals.These findings paint a more detailed picture of how geographic and sociocultural factors influence the spectrum of simian-borne retroviruses.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Jahangirnagar University , Savar, Dhaka 1342, Bangladesh.

ABSTRACT
Foamy viruses are complex retroviruses that have been shown to be transmitted from nonhuman primates to humans. In Bangladesh, infection with simian foamy virus (SFV) is ubiquitous among rhesus macaques, which come into contact with humans in diverse locations and contexts throughout the country. We analyzed microsatellite DNA from 126 macaques at six sites in Bangladesh in order to characterize geographic patterns of macaque population structure. We also included in this study 38 macaques owned by nomadic people who train them to perform for audiences. PCR was used to analyze a portion of the proviral gag gene from all SFV-positive macaques, and multiple clones were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis was used to infer long-term patterns of viral transmission. Analyses of SFV gag gene sequences indicated that macaque populations from different areas harbor genetically distinct strains of SFV, suggesting that geographic features such as forest cover play a role in determining the dispersal of macaques and SFV. We also found evidence suggesting that humans traveling the region with performing macaques likely play a role in the translocation of macaques and SFV. Our studies found that individual animals can harbor more than one strain of SFV and that presence of more than one SFV strain is more common among older animals. Some macaques are infected with SFV that appears to be recombinant. These findings paint a more detailed picture of how geographic and sociocultural factors influence the spectrum of simian-borne retroviruses.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Amino-acid alignment of ‘Core' strain representatives. Translated Gag sequence alignment between strain representatives compressed to variable sites. The numbers on the top of the figure show the position of these non-constant columns relative to the beginning of our gag sequencing region: the top digit is the 100's place, the middle the 10's place, and the bottom is the 1's place.
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fig5: Amino-acid alignment of ‘Core' strain representatives. Translated Gag sequence alignment between strain representatives compressed to variable sites. The numbers on the top of the figure show the position of these non-constant columns relative to the beginning of our gag sequencing region: the top digit is the 100's place, the middle the 10's place, and the bottom is the 1's place.

Mentions: These observations were formalized by a clustering analysis using UCLUST v1.148 at a 97.5% identity threshold. The resulting clusters were used to define strains, as described in the section on ‘MATERIALS AND METHODS'. The six most populous strains were recognized as particularly representative of the bulk of the viral population diversity, and bore significant structural congruence with monkey population structure. These six strains will be called the ‘core' strains and are noted as such in Figure 2G. Two of the strains, Bormi1 and Bormi2, were found to be recombinants of other core strains. The other, non-recombinant strains will be called ‘parental strains'. Differences between these strains are reflected on both nucleotide and amino-acid levels (Figure 5).


Population dynamics of rhesus macaques and associated foamy virus in Bangladesh.

Feeroz MM, Soliven K, Small CT, Engel GA, Andreina Pacheco M, Yee JL, Wang X, Kamrul Hasan M, Oh G, Levine KL, Rabiul Alam SM, Craig KL, Jackson DL, Lee EG, Barry PA, Lerche NW, Escalante AA, Matsen Iv FA, Linial ML, Jones-Engel L - Emerg Microbes Infect (2013)

Amino-acid alignment of ‘Core' strain representatives. Translated Gag sequence alignment between strain representatives compressed to variable sites. The numbers on the top of the figure show the position of these non-constant columns relative to the beginning of our gag sequencing region: the top digit is the 100's place, the middle the 10's place, and the bottom is the 1's place.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3675400&req=5

fig5: Amino-acid alignment of ‘Core' strain representatives. Translated Gag sequence alignment between strain representatives compressed to variable sites. The numbers on the top of the figure show the position of these non-constant columns relative to the beginning of our gag sequencing region: the top digit is the 100's place, the middle the 10's place, and the bottom is the 1's place.
Mentions: These observations were formalized by a clustering analysis using UCLUST v1.148 at a 97.5% identity threshold. The resulting clusters were used to define strains, as described in the section on ‘MATERIALS AND METHODS'. The six most populous strains were recognized as particularly representative of the bulk of the viral population diversity, and bore significant structural congruence with monkey population structure. These six strains will be called the ‘core' strains and are noted as such in Figure 2G. Two of the strains, Bormi1 and Bormi2, were found to be recombinants of other core strains. The other, non-recombinant strains will be called ‘parental strains'. Differences between these strains are reflected on both nucleotide and amino-acid levels (Figure 5).

Bottom Line: We also found evidence suggesting that humans traveling the region with performing macaques likely play a role in the translocation of macaques and SFV.Our studies found that individual animals can harbor more than one strain of SFV and that presence of more than one SFV strain is more common among older animals.These findings paint a more detailed picture of how geographic and sociocultural factors influence the spectrum of simian-borne retroviruses.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Jahangirnagar University , Savar, Dhaka 1342, Bangladesh.

ABSTRACT
Foamy viruses are complex retroviruses that have been shown to be transmitted from nonhuman primates to humans. In Bangladesh, infection with simian foamy virus (SFV) is ubiquitous among rhesus macaques, which come into contact with humans in diverse locations and contexts throughout the country. We analyzed microsatellite DNA from 126 macaques at six sites in Bangladesh in order to characterize geographic patterns of macaque population structure. We also included in this study 38 macaques owned by nomadic people who train them to perform for audiences. PCR was used to analyze a portion of the proviral gag gene from all SFV-positive macaques, and multiple clones were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis was used to infer long-term patterns of viral transmission. Analyses of SFV gag gene sequences indicated that macaque populations from different areas harbor genetically distinct strains of SFV, suggesting that geographic features such as forest cover play a role in determining the dispersal of macaques and SFV. We also found evidence suggesting that humans traveling the region with performing macaques likely play a role in the translocation of macaques and SFV. Our studies found that individual animals can harbor more than one strain of SFV and that presence of more than one SFV strain is more common among older animals. Some macaques are infected with SFV that appears to be recombinant. These findings paint a more detailed picture of how geographic and sociocultural factors influence the spectrum of simian-borne retroviruses.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus