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Population dynamics of rhesus macaques and associated foamy virus in Bangladesh.

Feeroz MM, Soliven K, Small CT, Engel GA, Andreina Pacheco M, Yee JL, Wang X, Kamrul Hasan M, Oh G, Levine KL, Rabiul Alam SM, Craig KL, Jackson DL, Lee EG, Barry PA, Lerche NW, Escalante AA, Matsen Iv FA, Linial ML, Jones-Engel L - Emerg Microbes Infect (2013)

Bottom Line: We also found evidence suggesting that humans traveling the region with performing macaques likely play a role in the translocation of macaques and SFV.Our studies found that individual animals can harbor more than one strain of SFV and that presence of more than one SFV strain is more common among older animals.These findings paint a more detailed picture of how geographic and sociocultural factors influence the spectrum of simian-borne retroviruses.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Jahangirnagar University , Savar, Dhaka 1342, Bangladesh.

ABSTRACT
Foamy viruses are complex retroviruses that have been shown to be transmitted from nonhuman primates to humans. In Bangladesh, infection with simian foamy virus (SFV) is ubiquitous among rhesus macaques, which come into contact with humans in diverse locations and contexts throughout the country. We analyzed microsatellite DNA from 126 macaques at six sites in Bangladesh in order to characterize geographic patterns of macaque population structure. We also included in this study 38 macaques owned by nomadic people who train them to perform for audiences. PCR was used to analyze a portion of the proviral gag gene from all SFV-positive macaques, and multiple clones were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis was used to infer long-term patterns of viral transmission. Analyses of SFV gag gene sequences indicated that macaque populations from different areas harbor genetically distinct strains of SFV, suggesting that geographic features such as forest cover play a role in determining the dispersal of macaques and SFV. We also found evidence suggesting that humans traveling the region with performing macaques likely play a role in the translocation of macaques and SFV. Our studies found that individual animals can harbor more than one strain of SFV and that presence of more than one SFV strain is more common among older animals. Some macaques are infected with SFV that appears to be recombinant. These findings paint a more detailed picture of how geographic and sociocultural factors influence the spectrum of simian-borne retroviruses.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Splits network giving an overview of sequence diversity, and built by SplitsTree with strain labels. SplitsTree produces a ‘splits network' capable of displaying non-treelike sequence difference information in a graphical form. In the figure, each set of parallel edges represents a ‘split', which is a collection of sequence differences that separates one group of sequences from another. In this case, non-tree-like evolution is expected to be from recombination; putative recombinant sequences are found at the end of the parallelograms formed by edges. Strain labels have multiple identifiers if they were found to be recombinant by cBrother; e.g., a/b indicates a recombinant between core sequences a and b. An underscore (_) indicates the presence of a >200 bp region in which no one core strain was clearly found as the source.
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fig4: Splits network giving an overview of sequence diversity, and built by SplitsTree with strain labels. SplitsTree produces a ‘splits network' capable of displaying non-treelike sequence difference information in a graphical form. In the figure, each set of parallel edges represents a ‘split', which is a collection of sequence differences that separates one group of sequences from another. In this case, non-tree-like evolution is expected to be from recombination; putative recombinant sequences are found at the end of the parallelograms formed by edges. Strain labels have multiple identifiers if they were found to be recombinant by cBrother; e.g., a/b indicates a recombinant between core sequences a and b. An underscore (_) indicates the presence of a >200 bp region in which no one core strain was clearly found as the source.

Mentions: An initial phylogenetic analysis to gain an overview of SFV gag diversity in our samples (Figure 3) analysis showed that the viruses formed a number of tight clusters in the tree. As this initial analysis did not take viral recombination or other possible confounding effects into account, it only serves to visualize our concept of strains and suggests that there may be a correlation between viral genotype and sampling location. This observation was confirmed by our SplitsTree47 analysis (Figure 4). SplitsTree produces a ‘splits network' capable of displaying non-treelike sequence difference information in a graphical form. In the figure, each set of parallel edges represents a ‘split', which is a collection of sequence differences that separates one group of sequences from another. In this case, non-treelike evolution is expected to be from recombination; putative recombinant sequences are found at the end of the parallelograms formed by edges. This tree also shows clustering by region, and abundant recombinant sequences.


Population dynamics of rhesus macaques and associated foamy virus in Bangladesh.

Feeroz MM, Soliven K, Small CT, Engel GA, Andreina Pacheco M, Yee JL, Wang X, Kamrul Hasan M, Oh G, Levine KL, Rabiul Alam SM, Craig KL, Jackson DL, Lee EG, Barry PA, Lerche NW, Escalante AA, Matsen Iv FA, Linial ML, Jones-Engel L - Emerg Microbes Infect (2013)

Splits network giving an overview of sequence diversity, and built by SplitsTree with strain labels. SplitsTree produces a ‘splits network' capable of displaying non-treelike sequence difference information in a graphical form. In the figure, each set of parallel edges represents a ‘split', which is a collection of sequence differences that separates one group of sequences from another. In this case, non-tree-like evolution is expected to be from recombination; putative recombinant sequences are found at the end of the parallelograms formed by edges. Strain labels have multiple identifiers if they were found to be recombinant by cBrother; e.g., a/b indicates a recombinant between core sequences a and b. An underscore (_) indicates the presence of a >200 bp region in which no one core strain was clearly found as the source.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3675400&req=5

fig4: Splits network giving an overview of sequence diversity, and built by SplitsTree with strain labels. SplitsTree produces a ‘splits network' capable of displaying non-treelike sequence difference information in a graphical form. In the figure, each set of parallel edges represents a ‘split', which is a collection of sequence differences that separates one group of sequences from another. In this case, non-tree-like evolution is expected to be from recombination; putative recombinant sequences are found at the end of the parallelograms formed by edges. Strain labels have multiple identifiers if they were found to be recombinant by cBrother; e.g., a/b indicates a recombinant between core sequences a and b. An underscore (_) indicates the presence of a >200 bp region in which no one core strain was clearly found as the source.
Mentions: An initial phylogenetic analysis to gain an overview of SFV gag diversity in our samples (Figure 3) analysis showed that the viruses formed a number of tight clusters in the tree. As this initial analysis did not take viral recombination or other possible confounding effects into account, it only serves to visualize our concept of strains and suggests that there may be a correlation between viral genotype and sampling location. This observation was confirmed by our SplitsTree47 analysis (Figure 4). SplitsTree produces a ‘splits network' capable of displaying non-treelike sequence difference information in a graphical form. In the figure, each set of parallel edges represents a ‘split', which is a collection of sequence differences that separates one group of sequences from another. In this case, non-treelike evolution is expected to be from recombination; putative recombinant sequences are found at the end of the parallelograms formed by edges. This tree also shows clustering by region, and abundant recombinant sequences.

Bottom Line: We also found evidence suggesting that humans traveling the region with performing macaques likely play a role in the translocation of macaques and SFV.Our studies found that individual animals can harbor more than one strain of SFV and that presence of more than one SFV strain is more common among older animals.These findings paint a more detailed picture of how geographic and sociocultural factors influence the spectrum of simian-borne retroviruses.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Jahangirnagar University , Savar, Dhaka 1342, Bangladesh.

ABSTRACT
Foamy viruses are complex retroviruses that have been shown to be transmitted from nonhuman primates to humans. In Bangladesh, infection with simian foamy virus (SFV) is ubiquitous among rhesus macaques, which come into contact with humans in diverse locations and contexts throughout the country. We analyzed microsatellite DNA from 126 macaques at six sites in Bangladesh in order to characterize geographic patterns of macaque population structure. We also included in this study 38 macaques owned by nomadic people who train them to perform for audiences. PCR was used to analyze a portion of the proviral gag gene from all SFV-positive macaques, and multiple clones were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis was used to infer long-term patterns of viral transmission. Analyses of SFV gag gene sequences indicated that macaque populations from different areas harbor genetically distinct strains of SFV, suggesting that geographic features such as forest cover play a role in determining the dispersal of macaques and SFV. We also found evidence suggesting that humans traveling the region with performing macaques likely play a role in the translocation of macaques and SFV. Our studies found that individual animals can harbor more than one strain of SFV and that presence of more than one SFV strain is more common among older animals. Some macaques are infected with SFV that appears to be recombinant. These findings paint a more detailed picture of how geographic and sociocultural factors influence the spectrum of simian-borne retroviruses.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus