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Population dynamics of rhesus macaques and associated foamy virus in Bangladesh.

Feeroz MM, Soliven K, Small CT, Engel GA, Andreina Pacheco M, Yee JL, Wang X, Kamrul Hasan M, Oh G, Levine KL, Rabiul Alam SM, Craig KL, Jackson DL, Lee EG, Barry PA, Lerche NW, Escalante AA, Matsen Iv FA, Linial ML, Jones-Engel L - Emerg Microbes Infect (2013)

Bottom Line: We also found evidence suggesting that humans traveling the region with performing macaques likely play a role in the translocation of macaques and SFV.Our studies found that individual animals can harbor more than one strain of SFV and that presence of more than one SFV strain is more common among older animals.These findings paint a more detailed picture of how geographic and sociocultural factors influence the spectrum of simian-borne retroviruses.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Jahangirnagar University , Savar, Dhaka 1342, Bangladesh.

ABSTRACT
Foamy viruses are complex retroviruses that have been shown to be transmitted from nonhuman primates to humans. In Bangladesh, infection with simian foamy virus (SFV) is ubiquitous among rhesus macaques, which come into contact with humans in diverse locations and contexts throughout the country. We analyzed microsatellite DNA from 126 macaques at six sites in Bangladesh in order to characterize geographic patterns of macaque population structure. We also included in this study 38 macaques owned by nomadic people who train them to perform for audiences. PCR was used to analyze a portion of the proviral gag gene from all SFV-positive macaques, and multiple clones were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis was used to infer long-term patterns of viral transmission. Analyses of SFV gag gene sequences indicated that macaque populations from different areas harbor genetically distinct strains of SFV, suggesting that geographic features such as forest cover play a role in determining the dispersal of macaques and SFV. We also found evidence suggesting that humans traveling the region with performing macaques likely play a role in the translocation of macaques and SFV. Our studies found that individual animals can harbor more than one strain of SFV and that presence of more than one SFV strain is more common among older animals. Some macaques are infected with SFV that appears to be recombinant. These findings paint a more detailed picture of how geographic and sociocultural factors influence the spectrum of simian-borne retroviruses.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Foamy virus sequence diversity overview. Phylogenetic tree built from all sequenced gag nucleotide clones using FastTree using the Jukes–Cantor sequence evolution model. Due to recombination, this tree should not be interpreted as an evolutionary history, but rather as an indication of the clustering seen in the sequence data. The edges of the tree are labeled with SH-like local supports.
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fig3: Foamy virus sequence diversity overview. Phylogenetic tree built from all sequenced gag nucleotide clones using FastTree using the Jukes–Cantor sequence evolution model. Due to recombination, this tree should not be interpreted as an evolutionary history, but rather as an indication of the clustering seen in the sequence data. The edges of the tree are labeled with SH-like local supports.

Mentions: Within-host pairwise distances were computed using R v2.15.1 (http://www.R-project.org) and the ape53 package's dist.dna function with the ‘raw' model (normalized Hamming distance). Figure 3 was also created using R and ape.


Population dynamics of rhesus macaques and associated foamy virus in Bangladesh.

Feeroz MM, Soliven K, Small CT, Engel GA, Andreina Pacheco M, Yee JL, Wang X, Kamrul Hasan M, Oh G, Levine KL, Rabiul Alam SM, Craig KL, Jackson DL, Lee EG, Barry PA, Lerche NW, Escalante AA, Matsen Iv FA, Linial ML, Jones-Engel L - Emerg Microbes Infect (2013)

Foamy virus sequence diversity overview. Phylogenetic tree built from all sequenced gag nucleotide clones using FastTree using the Jukes–Cantor sequence evolution model. Due to recombination, this tree should not be interpreted as an evolutionary history, but rather as an indication of the clustering seen in the sequence data. The edges of the tree are labeled with SH-like local supports.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3675400&req=5

fig3: Foamy virus sequence diversity overview. Phylogenetic tree built from all sequenced gag nucleotide clones using FastTree using the Jukes–Cantor sequence evolution model. Due to recombination, this tree should not be interpreted as an evolutionary history, but rather as an indication of the clustering seen in the sequence data. The edges of the tree are labeled with SH-like local supports.
Mentions: Within-host pairwise distances were computed using R v2.15.1 (http://www.R-project.org) and the ape53 package's dist.dna function with the ‘raw' model (normalized Hamming distance). Figure 3 was also created using R and ape.

Bottom Line: We also found evidence suggesting that humans traveling the region with performing macaques likely play a role in the translocation of macaques and SFV.Our studies found that individual animals can harbor more than one strain of SFV and that presence of more than one SFV strain is more common among older animals.These findings paint a more detailed picture of how geographic and sociocultural factors influence the spectrum of simian-borne retroviruses.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Jahangirnagar University , Savar, Dhaka 1342, Bangladesh.

ABSTRACT
Foamy viruses are complex retroviruses that have been shown to be transmitted from nonhuman primates to humans. In Bangladesh, infection with simian foamy virus (SFV) is ubiquitous among rhesus macaques, which come into contact with humans in diverse locations and contexts throughout the country. We analyzed microsatellite DNA from 126 macaques at six sites in Bangladesh in order to characterize geographic patterns of macaque population structure. We also included in this study 38 macaques owned by nomadic people who train them to perform for audiences. PCR was used to analyze a portion of the proviral gag gene from all SFV-positive macaques, and multiple clones were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis was used to infer long-term patterns of viral transmission. Analyses of SFV gag gene sequences indicated that macaque populations from different areas harbor genetically distinct strains of SFV, suggesting that geographic features such as forest cover play a role in determining the dispersal of macaques and SFV. We also found evidence suggesting that humans traveling the region with performing macaques likely play a role in the translocation of macaques and SFV. Our studies found that individual animals can harbor more than one strain of SFV and that presence of more than one SFV strain is more common among older animals. Some macaques are infected with SFV that appears to be recombinant. These findings paint a more detailed picture of how geographic and sociocultural factors influence the spectrum of simian-borne retroviruses.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus