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Smoking duration before first childbirth: an emerging risk factor for breast cancer? Results from 302,865 Norwegian women.

Bjerkaas E, Parajuli R, Weiderpass E, Engeland A, Maskarinec G, Selmer R, Gram IT - Cancer Causes Control (2013)

Bottom Line: We followed 302,865 Norwegian women born between 1899 and 1975, recruited from 1974 to 2003, by linkage to national registries through December 2007.We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).During more than 4.1 million person-years of follow-up, we ascertained 7,490 cases of primary invasive breast cancer.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway.

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Recently, The International Agency for Research on Cancer classified cigarette smoking as possibly carcinogenic to the human breast. Since some new cohort studies have suggested that this risk is confined to women who started to smoke before first childbirth, we wanted to examine the association between smoking and breast cancer, with a focus on time of smoking initiation in relation to the first childbirth.

Methods: We followed 302,865 Norwegian women born between 1899 and 1975, recruited from 1974 to 2003, by linkage to national registries through December 2007. We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).

Results: During more than 4.1 million person-years of follow-up, we ascertained 7,490 cases of primary invasive breast cancer. Compared with never smokers, ever smokers had a 15% (HR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.10-1.21) increased risk of breast cancer overall and also a significantly increased risk of breast cancer in the three most exposed categories of age at smoking initiation (parous women), number of cigarettes smoked per day, years of smoking duration and number of pack-years. Ever smokers who started to smoke more than 1 year after the first childbirth had not an increased risk (HR = 0.93, 95% CI 0.86-1.02), while those who initiated smoking more than 10 years before their first childbirth had a 60% (HR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.42-1.80) increased risk of breast cancer, compared with never smokers.

Conclusion: Smoking initiation before the first childbirth increases the risk of breast cancer.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Multivariate adjusted HR of breast cancer risk according to time of smoking initiation among ever smokers with smoking initiation after first childbirth as reference (HR = 1.0), for all smoking durations, for ≤20 years of duration, for >20 years duration, among 302,865 Norwegian women (1974–2003)
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Fig1: Multivariate adjusted HR of breast cancer risk according to time of smoking initiation among ever smokers with smoking initiation after first childbirth as reference (HR = 1.0), for all smoking durations, for ≤20 years of duration, for >20 years duration, among 302,865 Norwegian women (1974–2003)

Mentions: Figures 1 and 2 display the HR’s of breast cancer for parous ever smokers, with women who initiated smoking more than 1 year after first childbirth as the reference group, for the different categories of smoking initiation in relation to first childbirth overall and stratified by years of smoking [≤20, >20 (Fig. 1)] and overall and stratified by number of cigarettes [≤10, >10 (Fig. 2)]. When compared with those who initiated smoking more than 1 year after first childbirth, the figures show that for all six categories, the risk of breast cancer increases with number of years smoked before first childbirth (Figs. 1, 2).Fig. 1


Smoking duration before first childbirth: an emerging risk factor for breast cancer? Results from 302,865 Norwegian women.

Bjerkaas E, Parajuli R, Weiderpass E, Engeland A, Maskarinec G, Selmer R, Gram IT - Cancer Causes Control (2013)

Multivariate adjusted HR of breast cancer risk according to time of smoking initiation among ever smokers with smoking initiation after first childbirth as reference (HR = 1.0), for all smoking durations, for ≤20 years of duration, for >20 years duration, among 302,865 Norwegian women (1974–2003)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3675272&req=5

Fig1: Multivariate adjusted HR of breast cancer risk according to time of smoking initiation among ever smokers with smoking initiation after first childbirth as reference (HR = 1.0), for all smoking durations, for ≤20 years of duration, for >20 years duration, among 302,865 Norwegian women (1974–2003)
Mentions: Figures 1 and 2 display the HR’s of breast cancer for parous ever smokers, with women who initiated smoking more than 1 year after first childbirth as the reference group, for the different categories of smoking initiation in relation to first childbirth overall and stratified by years of smoking [≤20, >20 (Fig. 1)] and overall and stratified by number of cigarettes [≤10, >10 (Fig. 2)]. When compared with those who initiated smoking more than 1 year after first childbirth, the figures show that for all six categories, the risk of breast cancer increases with number of years smoked before first childbirth (Figs. 1, 2).Fig. 1

Bottom Line: We followed 302,865 Norwegian women born between 1899 and 1975, recruited from 1974 to 2003, by linkage to national registries through December 2007.We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).During more than 4.1 million person-years of follow-up, we ascertained 7,490 cases of primary invasive breast cancer.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway.

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Recently, The International Agency for Research on Cancer classified cigarette smoking as possibly carcinogenic to the human breast. Since some new cohort studies have suggested that this risk is confined to women who started to smoke before first childbirth, we wanted to examine the association between smoking and breast cancer, with a focus on time of smoking initiation in relation to the first childbirth.

Methods: We followed 302,865 Norwegian women born between 1899 and 1975, recruited from 1974 to 2003, by linkage to national registries through December 2007. We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).

Results: During more than 4.1 million person-years of follow-up, we ascertained 7,490 cases of primary invasive breast cancer. Compared with never smokers, ever smokers had a 15% (HR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.10-1.21) increased risk of breast cancer overall and also a significantly increased risk of breast cancer in the three most exposed categories of age at smoking initiation (parous women), number of cigarettes smoked per day, years of smoking duration and number of pack-years. Ever smokers who started to smoke more than 1 year after the first childbirth had not an increased risk (HR = 0.93, 95% CI 0.86-1.02), while those who initiated smoking more than 10 years before their first childbirth had a 60% (HR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.42-1.80) increased risk of breast cancer, compared with never smokers.

Conclusion: Smoking initiation before the first childbirth increases the risk of breast cancer.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus