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Changes in circulating procalcitonin versus C-reactive protein in predicting evolution of infectious disease in febrile, critically ill patients.

Hoeboer SH, Groeneveld AB - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: PCT decreased when septic shock resolved and increased when a new bloodstream infection or septic shock supervened.Increased or unchanged SOFA scores were best predicted by PCT increases and Day 7 PCT, in turn, was predictive for 28-day outcome.PCT, however, may better indicate the risk of complications, such as bloodstream infection, septic shock, organ failure and mortality, and therefore might help deciding on safe discontinuation of antibiotics.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Intensive Care, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. s.hoeboer@erasmusmc.nl

ABSTRACT

Objective: Although absolute values for C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) are well known to predict sepsis in the critically ill, it remains unclear how changes in CRP and PCT compare in predicting evolution of: infectious disease, invasiveness and severity (e.g. development of septic shock, organ failure and non-survival) in response to treatment. The current study attempts to clarify these aspects.

Methods: In 72 critically ill patients with new onset fever, CRP and PCT were measured on Day 0, 1, 2 and 7 after inclusion, and clinical courses were documented over a week with follow up to Day 28. Infection was microbiologically defined, while septic shock was defined as infection plus shock. The sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score was assessed.

Results: From peak at Day 0-2 to Day 7, CRP decreased when (bloodstream) infection and septic shock (Day 0-2) resolved and increased when complications such as a new (bloodstream) infection or septic shock (Day 3-7) supervened. PCT decreased when septic shock resolved and increased when a new bloodstream infection or septic shock supervened. Increased or unchanged SOFA scores were best predicted by PCT increases and Day 7 PCT, in turn, was predictive for 28-day outcome.

Conclusion: The data, obtained during ICU-acquired fever and infections, suggest that CRP may be favoured over PCT courses in judging response to antibiotic treatment. PCT, however, may better indicate the risk of complications, such as bloodstream infection, septic shock, organ failure and mortality, and therefore might help deciding on safe discontinuation of antibiotics. The analysis may thus help interpreting current literature and design future studies on guiding antibiotic therapy in the ICU.

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Evolution of C-reactive protein and procalcitonin according to evolution of infection (I) in febrile critically ill patients.CRP and PCT levels presented as median (interquartile range). Group 1=I Day (D)0-2 no I D3-7; Group 2=I D0-2 and I D3-7; Group 3=no I D0-2 but I D3-7; Group 4=no I D0-2 nor D3-7. For CRP D0-2 P=0.009, for CRP D7 P=0.002, for change P=0.004; for PCT D0-2 P=0.054, PCT D7 P<0.001, for change P=0.23, among groups.
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pone-0065564-g001: Evolution of C-reactive protein and procalcitonin according to evolution of infection (I) in febrile critically ill patients.CRP and PCT levels presented as median (interquartile range). Group 1=I Day (D)0-2 no I D3-7; Group 2=I D0-2 and I D3-7; Group 3=no I D0-2 but I D3-7; Group 4=no I D0-2 nor D3-7. For CRP D0-2 P=0.009, for CRP D7 P=0.002, for change P=0.004; for PCT D0-2 P=0.054, PCT D7 P<0.001, for change P=0.23, among groups.

Mentions: CRP and PCT courses were expressed as fractional changes at D7 vs. peak values at D0–2. To further separate differences in absolute levels and changes, we used the Kruskal-Wallis test to evaluate group differences in the respective values. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC) were used to evaluate predictive values, such as sensitivity and specificity of optimal cut off values, defined at highest combined sensitivity and specificity, and their statistical significance. Exact P values are given unless <0.001, and values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Data are expressed as number (percentage) or median (range) in tables and median, interquartile range (IQR) in Figure 1.


Changes in circulating procalcitonin versus C-reactive protein in predicting evolution of infectious disease in febrile, critically ill patients.

Hoeboer SH, Groeneveld AB - PLoS ONE (2013)

Evolution of C-reactive protein and procalcitonin according to evolution of infection (I) in febrile critically ill patients.CRP and PCT levels presented as median (interquartile range). Group 1=I Day (D)0-2 no I D3-7; Group 2=I D0-2 and I D3-7; Group 3=no I D0-2 but I D3-7; Group 4=no I D0-2 nor D3-7. For CRP D0-2 P=0.009, for CRP D7 P=0.002, for change P=0.004; for PCT D0-2 P=0.054, PCT D7 P<0.001, for change P=0.23, among groups.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3675153&req=5

pone-0065564-g001: Evolution of C-reactive protein and procalcitonin according to evolution of infection (I) in febrile critically ill patients.CRP and PCT levels presented as median (interquartile range). Group 1=I Day (D)0-2 no I D3-7; Group 2=I D0-2 and I D3-7; Group 3=no I D0-2 but I D3-7; Group 4=no I D0-2 nor D3-7. For CRP D0-2 P=0.009, for CRP D7 P=0.002, for change P=0.004; for PCT D0-2 P=0.054, PCT D7 P<0.001, for change P=0.23, among groups.
Mentions: CRP and PCT courses were expressed as fractional changes at D7 vs. peak values at D0–2. To further separate differences in absolute levels and changes, we used the Kruskal-Wallis test to evaluate group differences in the respective values. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC) were used to evaluate predictive values, such as sensitivity and specificity of optimal cut off values, defined at highest combined sensitivity and specificity, and their statistical significance. Exact P values are given unless <0.001, and values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Data are expressed as number (percentage) or median (range) in tables and median, interquartile range (IQR) in Figure 1.

Bottom Line: PCT decreased when septic shock resolved and increased when a new bloodstream infection or septic shock supervened.Increased or unchanged SOFA scores were best predicted by PCT increases and Day 7 PCT, in turn, was predictive for 28-day outcome.PCT, however, may better indicate the risk of complications, such as bloodstream infection, septic shock, organ failure and mortality, and therefore might help deciding on safe discontinuation of antibiotics.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Intensive Care, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. s.hoeboer@erasmusmc.nl

ABSTRACT

Objective: Although absolute values for C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) are well known to predict sepsis in the critically ill, it remains unclear how changes in CRP and PCT compare in predicting evolution of: infectious disease, invasiveness and severity (e.g. development of septic shock, organ failure and non-survival) in response to treatment. The current study attempts to clarify these aspects.

Methods: In 72 critically ill patients with new onset fever, CRP and PCT were measured on Day 0, 1, 2 and 7 after inclusion, and clinical courses were documented over a week with follow up to Day 28. Infection was microbiologically defined, while septic shock was defined as infection plus shock. The sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score was assessed.

Results: From peak at Day 0-2 to Day 7, CRP decreased when (bloodstream) infection and septic shock (Day 0-2) resolved and increased when complications such as a new (bloodstream) infection or septic shock (Day 3-7) supervened. PCT decreased when septic shock resolved and increased when a new bloodstream infection or septic shock supervened. Increased or unchanged SOFA scores were best predicted by PCT increases and Day 7 PCT, in turn, was predictive for 28-day outcome.

Conclusion: The data, obtained during ICU-acquired fever and infections, suggest that CRP may be favoured over PCT courses in judging response to antibiotic treatment. PCT, however, may better indicate the risk of complications, such as bloodstream infection, septic shock, organ failure and mortality, and therefore might help deciding on safe discontinuation of antibiotics. The analysis may thus help interpreting current literature and design future studies on guiding antibiotic therapy in the ICU.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus