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Variation in lithic technological strategies among the Neanderthals of Gibraltar.

Shipton C, Clarkson C, Bernal MA, Boivin N, Finlayson C, Finlayson G, Fa D, Pacheco FG, Petraglia M - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: Some of the observed patterns in technology are statistically tested including raw material selection, platform preparation, and the use of formal and expedient technological schemas.The main parameters of technological variation are examined through detailed analysis of the Gibraltar cores and comparison with samples from the classic Mousterian sites of Le Moustier and Tabun C.We attribute this change to a reduction in residential mobility as the climate deteriorated during Marine Isotope Stage 3 and the Neanderthal population contracted into a refugium.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Social Science, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. c.shipton@uq.edu.au

ABSTRACT
THE EVIDENCE FOR NEANDERTHAL LITHIC TECHNOLOGY IS REVIEWED AND SUMMARIZED FOR FOUR CAVES ON THE ROCK OF GIBRALTAR: Vanguard, Beefsteak, Ibex and Gorham's. Some of the observed patterns in technology are statistically tested including raw material selection, platform preparation, and the use of formal and expedient technological schemas. The main parameters of technological variation are examined through detailed analysis of the Gibraltar cores and comparison with samples from the classic Mousterian sites of Le Moustier and Tabun C. The Gibraltar Mousterian, including the youngest assemblage from Layer IV of Gorham's Cave, spans the typical Middle Palaeolithic range of variation from radial Levallois to unidirectional and multi-platform flaking schemas, with characteristic emphasis on the former. A diachronic pattern of change in the Gorham's Cave sequence is documented, with the younger assemblages utilising more localized raw material and less formal flaking procedures. We attribute this change to a reduction in residential mobility as the climate deteriorated during Marine Isotope Stage 3 and the Neanderthal population contracted into a refugium.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Scatter plot of the first two principal components.Note that most cores are concentrated in the bottom left of the distribution. Both the two cores from Beefsteak Cave and the two cores from Ibex Cave occur close to each other. The cores from Vanguard Cave and the cores from Gorham’s Layer IV and UBSm are not concentrated in the bottom left of the distribution, indicating their more expedient nature.
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pone-0065185-g007: Scatter plot of the first two principal components.Note that most cores are concentrated in the bottom left of the distribution. Both the two cores from Beefsteak Cave and the two cores from Ibex Cave occur close to each other. The cores from Vanguard Cave and the cores from Gorham’s Layer IV and UBSm are not concentrated in the bottom left of the distribution, indicating their more expedient nature.

Mentions: A scatter plot of the first two principal components shows how the cores from each assemblage are distributed (Figure 7). Most of the cores in the analysis fall into the bottom left of the distribution, reflecting the systematic radial nature of Levallois and discoidal based Middle Palaeolithic technology. The collection strategies at Le Moustier and Tabun C may have been somewhat biased towards more formal core types. There are however, significant numbers of cores that are more unidirectional on the right of the graph, and multi-platform on the upper part of Figure 7. The small sample of cores from Vanguard are widely spread but they tend to occur towards the top right of the distribution reflecting their relative emphasis on expedient flaking. The two cores from Beefsteak Cave occur near each other as to do the two cores from Ibex Cave reflecting the similarity in technology within each cave. The majority of cores from Gorham’s SSLm and LBSm are clustered in the bottom left, reflecting the dominance of Levallois and discoidal flaking in the early phases of occupation in the cave. The cores from Gorham’s Layer IV and Gorham’s UBSm are similarly distributed to those from Vanguard, being widely dispersed and not clustered in the bottom left of the distribution; therefore they tend to be more expedient than the cores from the lower members of Gorham’s Cave.


Variation in lithic technological strategies among the Neanderthals of Gibraltar.

Shipton C, Clarkson C, Bernal MA, Boivin N, Finlayson C, Finlayson G, Fa D, Pacheco FG, Petraglia M - PLoS ONE (2013)

Scatter plot of the first two principal components.Note that most cores are concentrated in the bottom left of the distribution. Both the two cores from Beefsteak Cave and the two cores from Ibex Cave occur close to each other. The cores from Vanguard Cave and the cores from Gorham’s Layer IV and UBSm are not concentrated in the bottom left of the distribution, indicating their more expedient nature.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3675147&req=5

pone-0065185-g007: Scatter plot of the first two principal components.Note that most cores are concentrated in the bottom left of the distribution. Both the two cores from Beefsteak Cave and the two cores from Ibex Cave occur close to each other. The cores from Vanguard Cave and the cores from Gorham’s Layer IV and UBSm are not concentrated in the bottom left of the distribution, indicating their more expedient nature.
Mentions: A scatter plot of the first two principal components shows how the cores from each assemblage are distributed (Figure 7). Most of the cores in the analysis fall into the bottom left of the distribution, reflecting the systematic radial nature of Levallois and discoidal based Middle Palaeolithic technology. The collection strategies at Le Moustier and Tabun C may have been somewhat biased towards more formal core types. There are however, significant numbers of cores that are more unidirectional on the right of the graph, and multi-platform on the upper part of Figure 7. The small sample of cores from Vanguard are widely spread but they tend to occur towards the top right of the distribution reflecting their relative emphasis on expedient flaking. The two cores from Beefsteak Cave occur near each other as to do the two cores from Ibex Cave reflecting the similarity in technology within each cave. The majority of cores from Gorham’s SSLm and LBSm are clustered in the bottom left, reflecting the dominance of Levallois and discoidal flaking in the early phases of occupation in the cave. The cores from Gorham’s Layer IV and Gorham’s UBSm are similarly distributed to those from Vanguard, being widely dispersed and not clustered in the bottom left of the distribution; therefore they tend to be more expedient than the cores from the lower members of Gorham’s Cave.

Bottom Line: Some of the observed patterns in technology are statistically tested including raw material selection, platform preparation, and the use of formal and expedient technological schemas.The main parameters of technological variation are examined through detailed analysis of the Gibraltar cores and comparison with samples from the classic Mousterian sites of Le Moustier and Tabun C.We attribute this change to a reduction in residential mobility as the climate deteriorated during Marine Isotope Stage 3 and the Neanderthal population contracted into a refugium.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Social Science, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. c.shipton@uq.edu.au

ABSTRACT
THE EVIDENCE FOR NEANDERTHAL LITHIC TECHNOLOGY IS REVIEWED AND SUMMARIZED FOR FOUR CAVES ON THE ROCK OF GIBRALTAR: Vanguard, Beefsteak, Ibex and Gorham's. Some of the observed patterns in technology are statistically tested including raw material selection, platform preparation, and the use of formal and expedient technological schemas. The main parameters of technological variation are examined through detailed analysis of the Gibraltar cores and comparison with samples from the classic Mousterian sites of Le Moustier and Tabun C. The Gibraltar Mousterian, including the youngest assemblage from Layer IV of Gorham's Cave, spans the typical Middle Palaeolithic range of variation from radial Levallois to unidirectional and multi-platform flaking schemas, with characteristic emphasis on the former. A diachronic pattern of change in the Gorham's Cave sequence is documented, with the younger assemblages utilising more localized raw material and less formal flaking procedures. We attribute this change to a reduction in residential mobility as the climate deteriorated during Marine Isotope Stage 3 and the Neanderthal population contracted into a refugium.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus